Blood Banking (320-D and 320-C)

Course Description

The didactic course (320-D, 7 semester hours) is a prerequisite for the clinical course (320-C, 4 semester hours). This course includes the study of blood group antigens and antibodies including the investigation of these theories and techniques pertaining to the ABO and Rh systems and other major blood group systems and the exploration of methods for blood processing, handling and storage.  Also included in this course are the areas of study in basic immunity and the immune response such as antibody structure and interactions, the complement system, disorders of the immune response and hypersensitivity reactions.

General Objectives

Upon completion of the didactic and clinical portions of the Blood Banking course, the student will correctly:

  • Explain basic concepts of immunology – including the body’s immunologic response to invasion and the concepts of blood group genetics.
  • Apply basic concepts and principles of the ABO and Rh typing including causes of discrepancies and methods used to resolve them.
  • Explain antigen-antibody reactions, the characteristics of different blood group systems and the clinical significance of the antibodies formed, including cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
  • Discuss principles of direct and indirect antiglobulin testing as pertaining to weak D testing, antibody detection and identification, potential sources of error in testing and methods used to resolve those problems including, but not limited to elution and enhancement methods.
  • Discuss pretransfusion and compatibility testing, selection of appropriate blood products as pertaining to proper ABO/Rh and antigen negative units for red cells and other blood components, importance of proper patient identification and need for crossmatch.
  • Discuss donor screening, testing, and processing and its importance, donor reactions and how to cope with them, blood collection and processing, preparation, cryopreservation, storage, and shipment of blood and blood components, and hemapheresis methods and possible components.
  • Discuss transfusion therapy and practice, discuss autologous and directed blood donations and uses for each.
  • Classify adverse effects of blood and blood component transfusions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.  Evaluate test results for transfusion reactions and prenatal testing results as they relate to situational evidence.  Calculate dosage of Rh immune globulin.
  • State the importance of quality control and quality assurance of reagents, equipment, and processes in the blood bank and transfusion service, record results of tests in a legible manner and in proper form.
  • Explain the principles of the routine serologic procedures performed, evaluate test outcomes, recognize limitations of test procedures and use results to evaluate patient.
  • Follow standard safety precautions of the laboratory and function as an entry level medical technologist.

Evaluation Methods     

Written tests and laboratory practical examinations will be based on material presented during lecture, student laboratory sessions, required reading assignments and course objectives.  The written tests are generally objective (multiple choice) with some matching, fill-in-the-blank, and short answer.  Laboratory practical examinations may require the student to perform a test, and interpret the results in order to answer questions based on their test results.  A final written examination and a final practical will be given encompassing all material covered in previous tests and practical exams.  Tests will be given on the dates as scheduled.  Students missing test days will be given an alternate test on a day at the convenience of the instructor. 


The grade received in this course is based on scores obtained on all tests given and an affective evaluation.  The affective (behavioral) evaluation will count as part of the total grade.  The grading scale, as stated in the student handbook is:

A = 94-100%
B = 86-93%
C = 80-85%
F = <80%

Required Textbook

Harmening, Denise M., Modern Blood Banking and Transfusion Practices. Philadelphia:  FA Davis Company, 6th edition, 2012.

Quick Reference

Program in Medical Laboratory Science
Program Director: Beth Gaither, MT(ASCP)SM MBA

Tel: 336-716-4727


Department of Pathology 
WF Baptist Medical Center
Medical Center Boulevard
Winston-Salem, NC 27157
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Last Updated: 07-14-2014
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