The METI patient mannequin, "Sam" or "Samantha", is connected by an electrical, hydraulic, and pneumatic umbilical cord to a central processor and control rack. Breath sounds, heart sounds, palpable pulses all convey physical diagnostic signs. The mannequin features a central nervous system model with intracranial pressure representation, pupillary responses to light and neuromuscular transmission. The airway is realistic and dynamic, capable of demonstrating lingual swelling, retropharyngeal abscess, laryngospasm, tracheostomy, cricothyroidotomy, and bronchial intubation. The lung model is physiologically correct and offers true alveolar gas exchange that is model driven and based upon pharmacokinetic principles of uptake and distribution. The lung can model bronchospasm, pneumothorax, hemothorax, tension, bronchial occlusion, restrictive disease, shunt, and altered lung and/or chest wall compliance. Hemodynamics are also model driven with baroreceptor control of venous capacitance, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac contractility, and heart rate. Pulmonary and system vascular resistance, ischemic sensitivity, and valvular restrictions can all be modeled. Oxygen consumption, arterial-alveolar gradients, carbon dioxide threshold, and respiratory quotients are just a few of the many physiological variables that may be manipulated. A trauma package includes a physiologically correct, interventional cardiac tamponade and pneumothorax model. A pulmonary artery catheter reports full hemodynamic data. The ACLS scenarios are capable of all arrhythmias, cardiac compression, and actual defibrillation. The genitourinary model receives an indwelling catheter and generates urine flow. Sam can be programmed to simulate or respond to actual inhaled anesthetics and over 70 different drugs. The processor allows customized modeling of drug responses. In summary, "Sam" or "Samantha", is a breathing, pulsating, talking, and thinking human patient model.
The Laerdal mannequin is a software-driven model with many physical features similar to Sam’s. It, too, has realistic airway anatomy with programmable changes, physical signs such as breath and heart sounds, and a virtual monitor system that allows the users to pick appropriate monitoring capabilities, and analyze the patient’s physiologic data, as in the clinical setting. The lungs demonstrate realistic chest excursion with ventilation. The software allows the mannequin operator to change vitals signs and physiologic parameters at the stroke of a computer key. This model is easily transportable to outside sites, for onsite simulations.