Susan E. Appt, D.V.M.Wake Forest School of Medicine

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Education & Training

  • B.Sc., , 1990
  • D.V.M., Atlantic Veterinary College at University of PEI , 1994
  • Fellowship, Comparative Medicine, WFU School of Medicine, 2004


  • North Am Menopause Soc
  • Am Veterinary Medical Assn
Susan E. Appt, D.V.M.

Susan E. Appt, D.V.M.

Associate Professor, Pathology-Comparative Medicine
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Sticht Center on Aging
WFU Primate Center
Center for Integrative Medicine
Translational Science Institute

Research Interests

aging, atherosclerosis/thrombosis, hormones/cytokines/signalling, immunology/allergy/inflammatio, metabolism, nutrition, women's health issues

Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-1637 | Department: 336-716-1637


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Recent Publications

Eyster KM, Appt S, Chalpe A, Mark-Kappeler CJ, Register TC, Clarkson TB. Effects of estradiol on transcriptional profiles in atherosclerotic iliac arteries in ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques. Menopause. 2014;21(2):143-152.

Atkins HM, Willson CJ, Silverstein M, Jorgensen M, Floyd E, Kaplan JR, Appt SE. Characterization of ovarian aging and reproductive senescence in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). Comp Med. 2014;64(1):55-62.

Eyster K, Appt S, Chalpe A, Register T, Clarkson T. Effects of equol on gene expression in female cynomolgus monkey iliac arteries. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;24(4):423-427.

Silverstein MG, Kaplan JR, Appt SE, Register TC, Shively CA. Effect of soy isoflavones on thyroid hormones in intact and ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Menopause. 2014;21(10):.

Bradford A, Jones K, Chosich J, May M, Kechris K, Appt S, Polosky A. Identification of corpus luteum MicroRNAs regulated by weight gain in the vervet monkey [abstract]. Reprod Sci. 2014;21(3 Suppl):114A.

Clarkson TB, Melendez GC, Appt SE. Timing hypothesis for postmenopausal hormone therapy: its origin, current status, and future. Menopause. 2013;20(3):342-353.

Kundu MC, May MC, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Lasley B, Gee N, Santoro N, Appt SE, Polotsky AJ. Assessment of luteal function in the vervet monkey as a means to develop a model for obesity-related reproductive phenotype. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2013;59(2):74-81.

Sophonsritsuk A, Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Shively CA, Espeland MA, Register TC. Differential effects of estradiol on carotid artery inflammation when administered early versus late after surgical menopause. Menopause. 2013;20(5):540-547.

Ethun KF, Wood CE, Cline JM, Register TC, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Endometrial profile of bazedoxifene acetate alone and in combination with conjugated equine estrogens in a primate model. Menopause. 2013;20(7):777-784.

Appt SE, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB. Premenopausal antimullerian hormone is a risk marker for postmenopausal coronary artery atherosclerosis progression in cynomolgus monkeys [abstract]. Menopause. 2013;20(12):1324.

Kuokkanen S, Polotsky AJ, Chosich J, Bradford A, Jasinska A, Phang T, Santoro N, Appt S. Weight fluctuations induce opposing changes in luteal molecular signals in vervet monkeys [abstract]. Reprod Sci. 2013;20(3 Suppl):252A.

Ulu A, Appt SE, Morisseau C, Hwang SH, Jones PD, Rose TE, Dong H, Lango J, Yang J, Tsai HJ, Miyabe C, Fortenbach C, Adams MR, Hammock BD. Pharmacokinetics and in vivo potency of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors in cynomolgus monkeys. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165(5):1401-1412.

Ethun KF, Wood CE, Parker CR, Kaplan JR, Chen H, Appt SE. Effect of ovarian aging on androgen biosynthesis in a cynomolgus macaque model. Climacteric. 2012;15(1):82-92.

Schnatz PF, Nudy M, O'Sullivan DM, Jiang X, Cline JM, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB, Appt SE. Coronary artery vitamin D receptor expression and plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D: their association with atherosclerosis. Menopause. 2012;19(9):967-973.

Schnatz PF, Marakovits KA, O'Sullivan DM, Ethun K, Clarkson TB, Appt SE. Response to an adequate dietary intake of vitamin D3 modulates the effect of estrogen therapy on bone density. J Womens Health. 2012;21(8):858-864.

Schnatz PF, Vila-Wright S, Jiang X, Register TC, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB, Appt SE. The association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations, C-reactive protein levels, and coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys. Menopause. 2012;19(10):1074-1080.

Schnatz PF, Nudy M, O'Sullivan DM, Jiang X, Cline JM, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB, Appt SE. The quantification of vitamin D receptors in coronary arteries and their association with atherosclerosis. Maturitas. 2012;73(2):143-147.

Appt SE, Chen H, Clarkson TB, Kaplan JR. Premenopausal antimullerian hormone concentration is associated with subsequent atherosclerosis. Menopause. 2012;19(12):1353-1359.

Ethun KF, Wood CE, Register TC, Cline JM, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Effects of bazedoxifene acetate with and without conjugated equine estrogens on the breast of postmenopausal monkeys. Menopause. 2012;19(11):1242-1252.

Hamilton RT, Rettberg JR, Mao Z, To J, Zhao L, Appt SE, Register TC, Kaplan JR, Brinton RD. Hippocampal responsiveness to 17 beta-estradiol and equol after long-term ovariectomy: implication for a therapeutic window of opportunity. Brain Res. 2011;1379():11-22.

Rettberg JR, Hamilton RT, Mao Z, To J, Zhao L, Appt SE, Register TC, Kaplan JR, Brinton RD. The effect of dietary soy isoflavones before and after ovariectomy on hippocampal protein markers of mitochondrial bioenergetics and antioxidant activity in female monkeys. Brain Res. 2011;1379():23-33.

Schnatz PF, Nudy M, O'Sullivan DM, Ethun K, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Identification of a mechanism for increased cardiovascular risk among individuals with low vitamin D concentrations. Menopause. 2011;18(9):994-1000.

Eyster KM, Appt SE, Mark-Kappeler CJ, Chalpe A, Register TC, Clarkson TB. Gene expression signatures differ with extent of atherosclerosis in monkey iliac artery. Menopause. 2011;18(10):1087-1095.

Appt SE, Kavanagh K, Chen H, Kaplan JR, Lazar J, Clarkson TB. Pulse wave velocity is positively correlated with atherosclerosis extent in midlife female nonhuman primates [abstract]. Menopause. 2011;18(12):1348.

Schnatz PF, Vila-Wright S, Jiang X, Register TC, Appt SE, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB. An inverse relationship between plasma vitamin D concentrations and C-reactive protein provides a potential mechanism for cardioprotection [abstract]. Menopause. 2011;18(12):1352.

Ethun KF, Cline JM, Appt SE. Endocrine profile of an ovariectomized cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with a supernumerary ovary. Comp Med. 2011;61(5):462-466.

Appt SE, Chen H, Goode AK, Hoyer PB, Clarkson TB, Adams MR, Wilson ME, Franke AA, Kaplan JR. The effect of diet and cardiovascular risk on ovarian aging in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Menopause. 2010;17(4):741-748.

Sophonsritsuk A, Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Register TC. Estrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease: could arterial expression of interleukin 17 provide some answers to the timing hypothesis? A study of early and late menopause in non-human primates [abstract]. Fertil Steril. 2010;94(4 Suppl 1):S43-S44.

Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Hoyer PB, Kock ND, Goode AK, May MC, Persyn JT, Ethun KF, Chen H, Kaplan JR, et al. Experimental induction of reduced ovarian reserve in a nonhuman primate model (Macaca fascicularis). Comp Med. 2010;60(5):380-388.

Kaplan JR, Chen H, Appt SE, Lees CJ, Franke AA, Berga SL, Wilson ME, Manuck SB, Clarkson TB. Impairment of ovarian function and associated health-related abnormalities are attributable to low social status in premenopausal monkeys and not mitigated by a high-isoflavone soy diet. Hum Reprod. 2010;25(12):3083-3094.

Appt SE, Ethun KF, Jorgensen MJ, Wagner JD. Do diet and ovarian reserve predict risk for development of the metabolic syndrome? [abstract]. Menopause. 2010;17(6):1218.

Register T, Sophonsritsuk A, Appt SE. Estrogen inhibits carotid artery inflammation in early but not late menopause in cynomolguis [sic]monkeys [abstract]. Menopause. 2010;17(6):1216.

Schnatz PF, O'Sullivan DM, Ethun KF, Appt SE. Identification of one of the potential mechanisms for increased cardiovascular risk among individuals with low vitamin D concentrations [abstract]. Menopause. 2010;17(6):1218-1219.

Schnatz PF, O'Sullivan DM, Ethun KF, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Individual differences in plasma concentrations of vitamin D3 are associated with the beneficial effect of estrogen treatment on bone density of surgically postmenopausal monkeys [abstract]. Menopause. 2010;17(6):1225.

Ethun KF, Wood CE, Appt SE, Cline JM, Chen H, Clarkson TB. Effects of combination therapy with bazedoxifene and conjugated equine estrogens on the endometrial and vaginal epithelium of surgically postmenopausal monkeys [abstract]. Endocr Rev. 2010;31(3 Suppl 1):S1303.

Muhammad FS, Goode AK, Kock ND, Arifin EA, Cline JM, Adams MR, Hoyer PB, Christian PJ, Isom S, Kaplan JR, Appt SE. Effects of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide on peripubertal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats: ovarian, clinical, and pathologic outcomes. Comp Med. 2009;59(1):46-59.

Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Chen H, Adams MR, Christian PJ, Hoyer PB, Wilson ME, Kaplan JR. Serum antimullerian hormone predicts ovarian reserve in a monkey model. Menopause. 2009;16(3):597-601.

Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Chen H, Adams MR, Christian PJ, Hoyer PB, Wilson ME, Kaplan JR. Serum antimullerian hormone predicts ovarian reserve in a monkey model [abstract]. J Womens Health. 2009;18(5):744.

Wood C, Hester J, Appt S, Cline M. Columnar cell lesions in the postmenopausal primate breast [abstract]. Toxicol Pathol. 2009;36(1):150-151.

Appt SE. Peer review and reflection continues forever [letter]. Fertil Steril. 2008;89(4):1034-1035.

Tormala R, Appt S, Clarkson TB, Groop P-H, Ronnback M, Ylikorkala O, Mikkola TS. Equol production capability is associated with favorable vascular function in postmenopausal women using tibolone; no effect with soy supplementation. Atherosclerosis. 2008;198(1):174-178.

Wood CE, Hester JM, Appt SE, Geisinger KR, Cline JM. Estrogen effects on epithelial proliferation and benign proliferative lesions in the postmenopausal primate mammary gland. Lab Invest. 2008;88(9):938-948.

Appt SE, Tormala R, Franke AA, Mikkola TS, Tikkanen MJ, Ylikorkala O, Clarkson TB. Soy-tibolone combination--effect on lipids in postmenopausal monkeys and women. Maturitas. 2008;60(3-4):216-222.

Tormala R, Appt S, Clarkson TB, Mueck AO, Seeger H, Mikkola TS, Ylikorkala O. Impact of soy supplementation on sex steroids and vascular inflammation markers in postmenopausal women using tibolone: role of equol production capability. Climacteric. 2008;11(5):409-415.

Walker SE, Register TC, Appt SE, Adams MR, Clarkson TB, Chen H, Isom S, Franke AA, Kaplan JR. Plasma lipid-dependent and -independent effects of dietary soy protein and social status on atherogenesis in premenopausal monkeys: implications for postmenopausal atherosclerosis burden. Menopause. 2008;15(5):950-957.

Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Adams MR, Hoyer PB, Christian PJ, Kaplan JR. Dietary soy with isoflavones retards ovarian aging [abstract]. Menopause. 2008;15(6):1210.

Register TC, Walker SE, Shively CA, Adams MR, Kaplan JR, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Inflammation and atherogenesis in female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2007;69(Suppl 1):72.

Appt SE, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB, Hoyer PB. Modeling the perimenopausal transition [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2007;69(Suppl 1):72-73.

Tormala RM, Appt S, Clarkson TB, Groop P-H, Ronnback M, Ylikorkala O, Mikkola TS. Equol production capability is associated with favorable end function in postmenopausal women using tibolone [abstract]. Atheroscler Suppl. 2007;8(1):116-117.

Jones JC, Appt SE, Bourland JD, Hoyer PB, Clarkson TB, Kaplan JR. Multidetector computed tomographic morphology of ovaries in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2007;46(5):54-63.

Appt SE, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB, Hoyer PB, Arifin E, Cline M, Isom S. Intramuscular administration of 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys primordial follicles in adult Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) [abstract]. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2007;46(4):133-134.

Tormal RM, Appt S, Clarkson TB, Tikkanen MJ, Ylikorkala O, Mikkola TS. Individual differences in equol production capability modulate blood pressure in tibolone-treated postmenopausal women: lack of effect of soy supplementation. Climacteric. 2007;10(6):471-479.

Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Lees CJ, Anthony MS. Low dose estrogens inhibit coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys. Maturitas. 2006;55(2):187-194.

Stroud FC, Appt SE, Wilson ME, Franke AA, Adams MR,, Kaplan JR. Concentrations of isoflavones in macaques consuming standard laboratory monkey diet. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2006;45(4):20-23.

Wood CE, Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Franke AA, Lees CJ, Doerge DR, Cline JM. Effects of high-dose soy lsoflavones and equol on reproductive tissues in female cynomolgus monkeys. Biol Reprod. 2006;75(3):477-486.

Wood CE, Clarkson TB, Appt SE, Franke AA, Boue SM, Burow ME, McCoy T, Cline JM. Effects of soybean glyceollins and estradiol in postmenopausal female monkeys. Nutr Cancer. 2006;56(1):74-81.

Appt SE, Wood CE, Parker RC, Cline JM, Kaplan JR. Androgen production in the cynomolgus monkey ovary [abstract]. Menopause. 2006;13(6):989.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Associate Professor, Pathology-Comparative Medicine

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