Susan E. Appt, D.V.M.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Susan E. Appt, D.V.M.

Associate Professor,

Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-1637 | Department: 336-716-1637


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Education & Training

  • B.Sc., Nova Scotia Agriculture College, 1990
  • D.V.M., Atlantic Veterinary College at University of PEI, 1994
  • Fellowship, Comparative Medicine, WFU School of Medicine, 2004


  • Am Veterinary Medical Assn
  • North Am Menopause Soc
Susan E. Appt, D.V.M.

Susan E. Appt, D.V.M.

Associate Professor, Pathology-Comparative Medicine
Center for Comparative Medicine Research
Center for Integrative Medicine
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Sticht Center on Aging

Research Interests

aging, atherosclerosis/thrombosis, cancer/oncogenesis, diabetes, hormones/cytokines/signalling, immunology/allergy/inflammatio, nutrition, women's health issues, biotechnology

Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-1637 | Department: 336-716-1637


Related Links

Recent Publications

Register TC, Appt SE, Clarkson TB [deceased]. Atherosclerosis and vascular biologic responses to estrogens: histologic, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and molecular methods. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1366():517-532.

Melendez GC, Register TC, Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Franke AA, Kaplan JR. Beneficial effects of soy supplementation on postmenopausal atherosclerosis are dependent on pretreatment stage of plaque progression. Menopause. 2015;22(3):289-296.

Schnatz PF, Nudy M, Jiang X, Demko JE, Appt SE. Vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women: contributions from human and nonhuman primate studies. Menopause. 2015;22(5):554-563.

Shively CA, Register TC, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Effects of long-term sertraline treatment and depression on coronary artery atherosclerosis in premenopausal female primates. Psychosom Med. 2015;77(3):267-278.

Bradford AP, Jones K, Kechris K, Chosich J, Montague M, Warren WC, May MC, Al-Safi Z, Kuokkanen S, Appt SE, Polotsky AJ. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0135163.

Susan E [sic] [Appt SE]. Myometrial artery calcification: significance for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women [editorial]. Menopause. 2015;22(12):1271-1272.

Eyster KM, Appt S, Chalpe A, Mark-Kappeler CJ, Register TC, Clarkson TB. Effects of estradiol on transcriptional profiles in atherosclerotic iliac arteries in ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques. Menopause. 2014;21(2):143-152.

Atkins HM, Willson CJ, Silverstein M, Jorgensen M, Floyd E, Kaplan JR, Appt SE. Characterization of ovarian aging and reproductive senescence in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). Comp Med. 2014;64(1):55-62.

Eyster K, Appt S, Chalpe A, Register T, Clarkson T. Effects of equol on gene expression in female cynomolgus monkey iliac arteries. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;24(4):423-427.

Silverstein MG, Kaplan JR, Appt SE, Register TC, Shively CA. Effect of soy isoflavones on thyroid hormones in intact and ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Menopause. 2014;21(10):1136-1142.

Bradford A, Jones K, Chosich J, May M, Kechris K, Appt S, Polosky A. Identification of corpus luteum MicroRNAs regulated by weight gain in the vervet monkey [abstract]. Reprod Sci. 2014;21(3 Suppl):114A.

Clarkson TB, Ethun KF, Pajewski NM, Golden D, Floyd E, Appt SE. Effects of bazedoxifene, conjugated equine estrogens, and a tissue-selective estrogen complex containing both bazedoxifene and conjugated equine estrogens on cerebral artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys. Menopause. 2014;21(1):8-14.

Appt SE, Dhungana S, McRitchie S, Sumner S. Ovarian metabolomic profiles differ between monkeys consuming prudent and Western diets [abstract]. Menopause. 2014;21(12):1334-1335.

Wellons M, Owens P, Caudell D, Appt SE. Identification of antimullerian hormone protein expression in the arterial wall of premenopausal and postmenopausal monkeys [abstract]. Menopause. 2014;21(12):1334.

Shively CA, Register TC, Vitolins MZ, Wilson ME, Appt SE. Dietary modification of physiological stress responses [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(Suppl 1):71.

Silverstein MG, Register TC, Appt SE, Shively CA. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and social stress on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism in female cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis) [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(Suppl 1):70.

Clarkson TB, Ethun KF, Chen H, Golden D, Floyd E, Appt SE. Effects of bazedoxifene alone and with conjugated equine estrogens on coronary and peripheral artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys. Menopause. 2013;20(3):274-281.

Clarkson TB, Melendez GC, Appt SE. Timing hypothesis for postmenopausal hormone therapy: its origin, current status, and future. Menopause. 2013;20(3):342-353.

Kundu MC, May MC, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Lasley B, Gee N, Santoro N, Appt SE, Polotsky AJ. Assessment of luteal function in the vervet monkey as a means to develop a model for obesity-related reproductive phenotype. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2013;59(2):74-81.

Sophonsritsuk A, Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Shively CA, Espeland MA, Register TC. Differential effects of estradiol on carotid artery inflammation when administered early versus late after surgical menopause. Menopause. 2013;20(5):540-547.

Ethun KF, Wood CE, Cline JM, Register TC, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Endometrial profile of bazedoxifene acetate alone and in combination with conjugated equine estrogens in a primate model. Menopause. 2013;20(7):777-784.

Appt SE, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB. Premenopausal antimullerian hormone is a risk marker for postmenopausal coronary artery atherosclerosis progression in cynomolgus monkeys [abstract]. Menopause. 2013;20(12):1324.

Kuokkanen S, Polotsky AJ, Chosich J, Bradford A, Jasinska A, Phang T, Santoro N, Appt S. Weight fluctuations induce opposing changes in luteal molecular signals in vervet monkeys [abstract]. Reprod Sci. 2013;20(3 Suppl):252A.

Stephens SM, Pau FK, Yalcinkaya TM, May MC, Berga SL, Post MD, Appt SE, Polotsky AJ. Assessing the pulsatility of luteinizing hormone in female vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). Comp Med. 2013;63(5):432-438.

Ulu A, Appt SE, Morisseau C, Hwang SH, Jones PD, Rose TE, Dong H, Lango J, Yang J, Tsai HJ, Miyabe C, Fortenbach C, Adams MR, Hammock BD. Pharmacokinetics and in vivo potency of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors in cynomolgus monkeys. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165(5):1401-1412.

Ethun KF, Wood CE, Parker CR, Kaplan JR, Chen H, Appt SE. Effect of ovarian aging on androgen biosynthesis in a cynomolgus macaque model. Climacteric. 2012;15(1):82-92.

Schnatz PF, Nudy M, O'Sullivan DM, Jiang X, Cline JM, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB, Appt SE. Coronary artery vitamin D receptor expression and plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D: their association with atherosclerosis. Menopause. 2012;19(9):967-973.

Schnatz PF, Marakovits KA, O'Sullivan DM, Ethun K, Clarkson TB, Appt SE. Response to an adequate dietary intake of vitamin D3 modulates the effect of estrogen therapy on bone density. J Womens Health. 2012;21(8):858-864.

Schnatz PF, Vila-Wright S, Jiang X, Register TC, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB, Appt SE. The association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations, C-reactive protein levels, and coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal monkeys. Menopause. 2012;19(10):1074-1080.

Schnatz PF, Nudy M, O'Sullivan DM, Jiang X, Cline JM, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB, Appt SE. The quantification of vitamin D receptors in coronary arteries and their association with atherosclerosis. Maturitas. 2012;73(2):143-147.

Appt SE, Chen H, Clarkson TB, Kaplan JR. Premenopausal antimullerian hormone concentration is associated with subsequent atherosclerosis. Menopause. 2012;19(12):1353-1359.

Ethun KF, Wood CE, Register TC, Cline JM, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Effects of bazedoxifene acetate with and without conjugated equine estrogens on the breast of postmenopausal monkeys. Menopause. 2012;19(11):1242-1252.

Hamilton RT, Rettberg JR, Mao Z, To J, Zhao L, Appt SE, Register TC, Kaplan JR, Brinton RD. Hippocampal responsiveness to 17 beta-estradiol and equol after long-term ovariectomy: implication for a therapeutic window of opportunity. Brain Res. 2011;1379():11-22.

Rettberg JR, Hamilton RT, Mao Z, To J, Zhao L, Appt SE, Register TC, Kaplan JR, Brinton RD. The effect of dietary soy isoflavones before and after ovariectomy on hippocampal protein markers of mitochondrial bioenergetics and antioxidant activity in female monkeys. Brain Res. 2011;1379():23-33.

Schnatz PF, Nudy M, O'Sullivan DM, Ethun K, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Identification of a mechanism for increased cardiovascular risk among individuals with low vitamin D concentrations. Menopause. 2011;18(9):994-1000.

Eyster KM, Appt SE, Mark-Kappeler CJ, Chalpe A, Register TC, Clarkson TB. Gene expression signatures differ with extent of atherosclerosis in monkey iliac artery. Menopause. 2011;18(10):1087-1095.

Appt SE, Kavanagh K, Chen H, Kaplan JR, Lazar J, Clarkson TB. Pulse wave velocity is positively correlated with atherosclerosis extent in midlife female nonhuman primates [abstract]. Menopause. 2011;18(12):1348.

Schnatz PF, Vila-Wright S, Jiang X, Register TC, Appt SE, Kaplan JR, Clarkson TB. An inverse relationship between plasma vitamin D concentrations and C-reactive protein provides a potential mechanism for cardioprotection [abstract]. Menopause. 2011;18(12):1352.

Ethun KF, Cline JM, Appt SE. Endocrine profile of an ovariectomized cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with a supernumerary ovary. Comp Med. 2011;61(5):462-466.

Appt SE, Ethun KF. Reproductive aging and risk for chronic disease: insights from studies of nonhuman primates. Maturitas. 2010;67(1):7-14.

Appt SE, Ethun KF, Jorgensen MJ, Wagner JD. Do diet and ovarian reserve predict risk for development of the metabolic syndrome? [abstract]. Menopause. 2010;17(6):1218.

Register T, Sophonsritsuk A, Appt SE. Estrogen inhibits carotid artery inflammation in early but not late menopause in cynomolguis [sic]monkeys [abstract]. Menopause. 2010;17(6):1216.

Schnatz PF, O'Sullivan DM, Ethun KF, Appt SE. Identification of one of the potential mechanisms for increased cardiovascular risk among individuals with low vitamin D concentrations [abstract]. Menopause. 2010;17(6):1218-1219.

Schnatz PF, O'Sullivan DM, Ethun KF, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Individual differences in plasma concentrations of vitamin D3 are associated with the beneficial effect of estrogen treatment on bone density of surgically postmenopausal monkeys [abstract]. Menopause. 2010;17(6):1225.

Ethun KF, Wood CE, Appt SE, Cline JM, Chen H, Clarkson TB. Effects of combination therapy with bazedoxifene and conjugated equine estrogens on the endometrial and vaginal epithelium of surgically postmenopausal monkeys [abstract]. Endocr Rev. 2010;31(3 Suppl 1):S1303.

Jones JC, Appt SE, Werre SR, Tan JC, Kaplan JR. Validation of multi-detector computed tomography as a non-invasive method for measuring ovarian volume in macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Am J Primatol. 2010;72(6):530-538.

Appt SE, Chen H, Goode AK, Hoyer PB, Clarkson TB, Adams MR, Wilson ME, Franke AA, Kaplan JR. The effect of diet and cardiovascular risk on ovarian aging in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Menopause. 2010;17(4):741-748.

Sophonsritsuk A, Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Register TC. Estrogen therapy and cardiovascular disease: could arterial expression of interleukin 17 provide some answers to the timing hypothesis? A study of early and late menopause in non-human primates [abstract]. Fertil Steril. 2010;94(4 Suppl 1):S43-S44.

Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Hoyer PB, Kock ND, Goode AK, May MC, Persyn JT, Ethun KF, Chen H, Kaplan JR, et al. Experimental induction of reduced ovarian reserve in a nonhuman primate model (Macaca fascicularis). Comp Med. 2010;60(5):380-388.

Kaplan JR, Chen H, Appt SE, Lees CJ, Franke AA, Berga SL, Wilson ME, Manuck SB, Clarkson TB. Impairment of ovarian function and associated health-related abnormalities are attributable to low social status in premenopausal monkeys and not mitigated by a high-isoflavone soy diet. Hum Reprod. 2010;25(12):3083-3094.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Associate Professor, Pathology-Comparative Medicine

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