Profile

Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Education & Training

  • B.A., Vanderbilt University , 1972
  • Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley , 1978
  • Fellowship, Duke University Hospital, 1981

Memberships

  • Am Assn Of Advancement Of Scie
  • Am Diabetes Assn
  • Am Soc Of Human Genetics
  • Fed Of Am Soc For Experimental
Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D.

Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D.

Associate Director, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Director, Center for Diabetes Research
Professor, Biochemistry
Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Maya Angelou Center for Health Equity
Hypertension and Vascular Research Center
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Sticht Center on Aging
Center for Diabetes Research
Endocrinology & Metabolism
Translational Science Institute
Pediatrics

Research Interests

atherosclerosis/thrombosis, cognition/learning, communication/speech/hearing, diabetes, genetics/genome, metabolism, minority health issues, molecular biology/molecular me, neurosciences/behavior, vascular diseases

Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-7507 | Department: 336-713-7500

Email: dbowden@wakehealth.edu

Recent Publications

Hellwege JN, Palmer ND, Ziegler JT, Langefeld CD, Lorenzo C, Norris JM, Takamura T, Bowden DW. Genetic variants in selenoprotein P plasma 1 gene (SEPP1) are associated with fasting insulin and first phase insulin response in Hispanics. Gene. 2014;534(1):33-39.

Williams AL, Jacobs SB, Moreno-Macias H, Huerta-Chagoya A, Churchhouse C, Marquez-Luna C, Garcia-Ortiz H, Gomez-Vazquez MJ, Burtt NP, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Gonzalez-Villalpando C, Florez JC, Orozco L, Haiman CA, Tusie-Luna T, Altshuler D, Bowden DW, et al. Sequence variants in SLC16A11 are a common risk factor for type 2 diabetes in Mexico [letter]. Nature. 2014;506(7486):97-101.

Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Smith SC, Xu J, Divers J. Relationships between electrochemical skin conductance and kidney disease in Type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2014;28(1):56-60.

Palmer ND, Ng MC, Hicks PJ, Mudgal P, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Evaluation of candidate nephropathy susceptibility genes in a genome-wide association study of African American diabetic kidney disease. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e88273.

Mahajan A, Go MJ, Zhang W, Below JE,Gaulton KJ, Ferreira T, Horikoshi M, Johnson AD, NG MCY, Prokopenko I, Saleheen D, Wang XU, Zeggini E, Abecasis GR, Adair LS, Almgren P, Atalay M, Anung T, Baldassarre D, Balkau B, Bao Y. Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Nat Genet. 2014;46(3):234-244.

Register TC, Hruska KA, Divers J, Bowden DW, Palmer ND, Carr JJ, Wagenknecht LE, Hightower RC, Xu J, Smith SC, Dietzen DJ, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Sclerostin is positively associated with bone mineral density in men and women and negatively associated with carotid calcified atherosclerotic plaque in men from the African American-Diabetes Heart Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(1):315-321.

Divers J, Palmer ND, Lu L, Langefeld CD, Rocco MV, Hicks PJ, Murea M, Ma L, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Gene-gene interactions in APOL1-associated nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(3):587-594.

Cox AJ, Hsu FC, Ng MC, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Genetic risk score associations with cardiovascular disease and mortality in the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(4):1157-1164.

Flannick J, Thorleifsson G, Beer NL, Jacobs SB, Grarup N, Burtt NP, Mahajan A, Fuchsberger C, Atzmon G, Benediktsson R, Blangero J, Bowden DW, Brandslund I, Brosnan J, Burslem F, Chambers J, Cho YS, Christensen C, Douglas DA, Duggirala R, Dymek Z,. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2014;46(4):357-363.

Cox AJ, Azeem A, Yeboah J, Soliman EZ, Aggarwal SR, Bertoni AG, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Herrington DM, Bowden DW. Heart rate-corrected QT interval is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(5):1454-1461.

Adams JN, Raffield LM, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Ng MC, Carr JJ, Cox AJ, Bowden DW. Analysis of common and coding variants with cardiovascular disease in the diabetes heart study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014;13(1):77.

Hellwege JN, Palmer ND, Raffield LM, Ng MC, Hawkins GA, Long J, Lorenzo C, Norris JM, Ida Chen YD, Speliotes EK, Rotter JI, Langefeld CD, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW. Genome-wide family-based linkage analysis of exome chip variants and cardiometabolic risk. Genet Epidemiol. 2014;38(4):345-352.

Goodarzi MO, Langefeld CD, Xiang AH, Chen YD, Guo X, Hanley AJ, Raffel LJ, Kandeel F, Nadler JL, Buchanan TA, Norris JM, Fingerlin TE, Lorenzo C, Rewers MJ, Haffner SM, Bowden DW, Rich SS, Bergman RN, Rotter JI, Watanabe RM, Wagenknecht LE. Insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance are heritable and have strong genetic correlation in Mexican Americans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(4):1157-1164.

Cooke Bailey JN, Palmer ND, Ng MC, Bonomo JA, Hicks PJ, Hester JM, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Analysis of coding variants identified from exome sequencing resources for association with diabetic and non-diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. Hum Genet. 2014;133(6):769-779.

Halban PA, Polonsky KS, Bowden DW, Hawkins MA, Ling C, Mather KJ, Powers AC, Rhodes CJ, Sussel L, Weir GC. Beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes: postulated mechanisms and prospects for prevention and treatment. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(6):1751-1758.

Bonomo JA, Ng MC, Palmer ND, Keaton JM, Larsen CP, Hicks PJ, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Coding variants in nephrin (NPHS1) and susceptibility to nephropathy in African Americans. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(8):1434-1440.

Cox AJ, Hugenschmidt CE, Raffield LM, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Williamson JD, Hsu FC, Bowden DW. Heritability and genetic association analysis of cognition in the Diabetes Heart Study. Neurobiol Aging. 2014;35(8):1958e3-e12.

Bonomo JA, Palmer ND, Hicks PJ, Lea JP, Okusa MD, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Complement factor H gene associations with end-stage kidney disease in African Americans. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(7):1409-1414.

Bonomo JA, Guan M, Ng MC, Palmer ND, Hicks PJ, Keaton JM, Lea JP, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. The ras responsive transcription factor RREB1 is a novel candidate gene for type 2 diabetes associated end-stage kidney disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23(24):6441-6447.

Cox AJ, Hsu FC, Freedman BI, Herrington DM, Criqui MH, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Contributors to mortality in high-risk diabetic patients in the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(10):2798-2803.

Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Lu L, Palmer ND, Carrie Smith S, Bagwell BM, Hicks PJ, Xu J, Wagenknecht LE, Raffield LM, Register TC, Jeffrey Carr J, Bowden DW, Divers J. APOL1 associations with nephropathy, atherosclerosis, and all-cause mortality in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Kidney Int. 2014;():.

Halban PA, Polonsky KS, Bowden DW, Hawkins MA, Ling C, Mather KJ, Powers AC, Rhodes CJ, Sussel L, Weir GC. Beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes: postulated mechanisms and prospects for prevention and treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(6):1983-1992.

Raffield LM, Agarwal S, Cox AJ, Hsu FC, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Xu J, Bowden DW, Vitolins MZ. Cross-sectional analysis of calcium intake for associations with vascular calcification and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(4):1029-1035.

Ng MC, Shriner D, Chen BH, Li J, Chen WM, Guo X, Liu J, Bielinski SJ, Yanek LR, Nalls MA, Comeau ME, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Jensen RA, Evans DS, Sun YV, An P, Patel SR, Lu Y, Long J, Armstrong LL, Wagenknecht L, Yang L, Snively BM, Palmer ND, Mudgal P,. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes. PLoS Genet. 2014;18(8):e1004517.

Sink KM, Divers J, Whitlow CT, Palmer ND, Smith SC, Xu J, Hugenschmidt CE, Wagner BC, Williamson JD, Bowden DW, Maldjian JA, Freedman BI. Cerebral structural changes in diabetic kidney disease: African American-Diabetes Heart Study MIND. Diabetes Care. 2014;():.

Keaton JM, Cooke Bailey JN, Palmer ND, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Ng MC, Bowden DW. A comparison of type 2 diabetes risk allele load between African Americans and European Americans. Hum Genet. 2014;133(12):1487-1495.

Palmer ND, Ng MC, Langefeld CD, Divers J, Lea JP, Okusa MD, Kimberly RP, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Lack of association of the APOL1 G3 haplotype in African Americans with ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;26():.

Yeo NC, O'Meara CC, Bonomo JA, Veth KN, Tomar R, Flister MJ, Drummond IA, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Lazar J, Link BA, Jacob HJ. Shroom3 contributes to the maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier integrity. Genome Res. 2014;():.

Palmer ND, Sink KM, Smith SC, Xu J, Bowden DW, Hugenschmidt CE, Whitlow CT, Williamson JD, Maldjian JA, Divers J, Freedman BI. Kidney disease and cognitive function: African American-Diabetes Heart Study MIND. Am J Nephrol. 2014;40(3):200-207.

Register TC, Hruska KA, Divers J, Bowden DW, Palmer ND, Carr JJ, Wagenknecht LE, Hightower RC, Xu J, Smith SC, Dietzen DJ, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Plasma Dickkopf1 (DKK1) concentrations negatively associate with atherosclerotic calcified plaque in African-Americans with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(1):E60-E65.

An SS, Palmer ND, Hanley AJ, Ziegler JT, Brown WM, Haffner SM, Norris JM, Rotter JI, Guo X, Chen YD, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW. Estimating the contributions of rare and common genetic variations and clinical measures to a model trait: adiponectin. Genet Epidemiol. 2013;37(1):13-24.

Virgadamo S, Azeem A, Yeboah J, Rodriguez CJ, Cox AJ, Bowden DW, Herrington DM. Premature ventricular complexes predict mortality in a population with type 2 diabetes--the Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. Circulation. 2013;127(12 Suppl):AP049.

Lipkowitz MS, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Comeau ME, Bowden DW, Kao WH, Astor BC, Bottinger EP, Iyengar SK, Klotman PE, Freedman RG, Zhang W, Parekh RS, Choi MJ, Nelson GW, Winkler CA, Kopp JB. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with hypertension-attributed nephropathy and the rate of kidney function decline in African Americans. Kidney Int. 2013;83(1):114-120.

Ng MCY, Saxena R, Li J, Palmer ND, Dimitrov L, Xu J, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Zmuda JM, Siscovick DS, Patel SR, Crook ED, Sims M, Chen YD, Bertoni AG, Li M, Grant SF, Dupuis J, Meigs JB, Psaty BM, Pankow JS, Langefeld CD,. Transferability and fine mapping of type 2 diabetes loci in African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource Plus Study. Diabetes. 2013;62(3):965-976.

Divers J, Palmer ND, Lu L, Register TC, Carr JJ, Hicks PJ, Hightower RC, Smith SC, Xu J, Cox AJ, Hruska KA, Bowden DW, Lewis CE, Heiss G, Province MA, Borecki IB, Kerr KF, Chen YD, Palmas W, Rotter JI, Wassel CL, Bertoni AG,. Admixture mapping of coronary artery calcified plaque in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2013;6(1):97-105.

Agarwal S, Cox AJ, Herrington DM, Jorgensen NW, Xu J, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Coronary calcium score predicts cardiovascular mortality in diabetes: Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(4):972-977.

Adams JN, Cox AJ, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Genetic analysis of haptoglobin polymorphisms with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in the Diabetes Heart Study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12():31.

Divers J, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Smith SC, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Albuminuria associates with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African Americans with diabetes [letter]. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(3):e34-e35.

Ma L, Murea M, Snipes JA, Marinelarena A, Kruger J, Hicks PJ, Langberg KA, Bostrom MA, Cooke JN, Suzuki D, Babazono T, Uzu T, Tang SC, Mondal AK, Sharma NK, Kobes S, Antinozzi PA, Davis M, Das SK, Rasouli N, Kern PA,. An ACACB variant implicated in diabetic nephropathy associates with body mass index and gene expression in obese subjects. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56193.

Register TC, Divers J, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Lenchik L, Wagenknecht LE, Hightower RC, Xu J, Smith SC, Hruska KA, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Relationships between serum adiponectin and bone density, adiposity and calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(5):1916-1922.

Shah SA, Herrington DM, Howard TD, Divers J, Arnett DK, Burke GL, Kao WH, Guo X, Siscovick DS, Chakravarti A, Lima JA, Psaty BM, Tomaselli GF, Rich SS, Bowden DW, Post W. Associations between NOS1AP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and QT interval duration in four racial/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2013;18(1):29-40.


Cox AJ, Lehtinen AB, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Polymorphisms in the Selenoprotein S gene and subclinical cardiovascular disease in the Diabetes Heart Study. Acta Diabetol. 2013;50(3):391-399.

Cox AJ, Hugenschmidt CE, Wang PT, Hsu FC, Kenchaiah S, Daniel K, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Herrington DM, Carr JJ, Stacey B, Bowden DW. Usefulness of biventricular volume as a predictor of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (from the Diabetes Heart Study). Am J Cardiol. 2013;111(8):1152-1158.

Fu W, O'Connor TD, Jun G, Kang HM, Abecasis G, Leal SM, Gabriel S, Rieder MJ, Altshuler D, Shendure J, Nickerson DA, Bamshad MJ, Bowden DW, Burke G, Carr J, Goff D, Herrington DM, Liu Y, Bleecker E, Meyers D,. Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants. Nature. 2013;493(7431):216-220.

Raffield LM, Cox AJ, Hsu FC, Ng MC, Langefeld CD, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Impact of HDL genetic risk scores on coronary artery calcified plaque and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes Heart Study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12():95.

Cox AJ, Ng MC, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Koch KL, Dawson PA, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Hsu FC, Bowden DW. Association of SNPs in the UGT1A gene cluster with total bilirubin and mortality in the Diabetes Heart Study. Atherosclerosis. 2013;229(1):155-160.

Hugenschmidt CE, Hsu FC, Hayasaka S, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Nyenhuis DL, Williamson JD, Bowden DW. The influence of subclinical cardiovascular disease and related risk factors on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the DHS-Mind study. J Diabetes Complications. 2013;27(5):422-428.

Divers J, Hugenschmidt C, Sink KM, Williamson JD, Ge Y, Smith SC, Bowden DW, Whitlow CT, Lyders E, Maldjian JA, Freedman BI. Cerebral white matter hyperintensity in African Americans and European Americans with type 2 diabetes. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;22(7):e46-52.

Bowden DW, Cox AJ. Diabetes: unravelling the enigma of T2DM and cardiovascular disease. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013;9(11):632-633.

Cox AJ, Lambird JE, Sandy An S, Register TC, Langefeld CD, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Variants in adiponectin signaling pathway genes show little association with subclinical CVD in the Diabetes Heart Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(9):E456-462.

Fan Y, Bonomo JA, Chuang PY, Xiao W, Mallipattu SK, Palmer ND, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Wang N, He JC. RTN1 is a novel risk gene for kidney disease [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(Abstract Suppl):187A.

Bonomo JA, Ng M, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. RREB1, a modulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), is a novel nephropathy gene in African Americans [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(Abstract Suppl):248A.

Bonomo JA, Ng M, Palmer ND, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Novel coding variants in NPHS1 are associated with diabetic and all-cause end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in African Americans [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(Abstract Suppl):712A.

Divers J, Palmer ND, Lu L, Langefeld CD, Rocco MV, Hicks PJ, Murea M, Ma L, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Gene-gene interactions in APOL1-associated nephropathy [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(Abstract Suppl):67A.

Freedman BI, Divers J, Smith SC, Xu J, Bowden DW. Non-invasive assessment of electrochemical skin conductance associates with kidney function in African Americans (AA) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(Abstract Suppl):201A.

Divers J, Nunez M, High KP, Murea M, Rocco MV, Ma L, Bowden DW, Hicks PJ, Spainhour M, Ornelles DA, Kleiboeker SB, Duncan K, Langefeld CD, Turner J, Freedman BI. JC polyoma virus interacts with APOL1 in African Americans with nondiabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2013;84(6):1207-1213.

Ng MC, Bowden DW. Is genetic testing of value in predicting and treating obesity? [invited commentary]. N C Med J. 2013;74(6):530-533.

Sandy An S, Palmer ND, Hanley AJ, Ziegler JT, Mark Brown W, Freedman BI, Register TC, Rotter JI, Guo X, Ida Chen YD, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW. Genetic analysis of adiponectin variation and its association with type 2 diabetes in African Americans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(12):E721-E729.

Cooke Bailey JN, Lu L, Chou JW, Xu J, McWilliams DR, Howard TD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Palmer ND. The role of copy number variation in African Americans with Type 2 diabetes-associated end stage renal disease. J Mol Genet Med. 2013;7(2):61.

O'Connor TD, Kiezun A, Bamshad M, Rich SS, Smith JD, Turner E, Bleecker ER, Bowden DW. Fine-scale patterns of population stratification confound rare variant association tests. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e65834.

Maldjian JA, Whitlow CT, Saha BN, Kota G, Vandergriff C, Davenport EM, Divers J, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Automated white matter total lesion volume segmentation in diabetes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(12):2265-2270.

Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, de Chavez P, Bertoni A, Bowden D, Dye A, Golden S, Meigs J, Pankow J, Liu K, Vassy J, Carnethon M. Association of SNP rs7903146 in TCF7L2 with incident type 2 diabetes in normal weight and overweight/obese individuals; a pooled analysis [abstract]. Circulation. 2013;127(12 Suppl):AP156.

Sergeant S, Hugenschmidt CE, Rudock ME, Ziegler JT, Ivester P, Ainsworth HC, Vaidya D, Case LD, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Mathias RA, Chilton FH. Differences in arachidonic acid levels and fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene variants in African Americans and European Americans with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(4):547-555.

Ng MCY, Hester JM, Wing MR, Li J, Xu J, Hicks PJ, Roh BH, Lu L, Divers J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Palmer ND, Bowden DW. Genome-wide association of BMI in African Americans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20(3):622-627.

Rao M, Mottl AK, Cole SA, Umans JG, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Fox CS, Yang Q, Cupples A, Iyengar SK, Hunt SC, Trikalinos TA. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans for renal function traits. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27(2):647-656.

Palmer ND, McDonough CW, Hicks PJ, Roh BH, Wing MR, An SS, Hester JM, Cooke JN, Bostrom MA, Rudock ME, Talbert ME, Lewis JP, Lu L, Ziegler JT, Divers J, Ng MCY, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, et al. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(1):e29202.

Cooke JN, Ng MCY, Palmer ND, An SS, Hester JM, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW. Genetic risk assessment of type 2 diabetes-associated polymorphisms in African Americans. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(2):287-292.

Bostrom MA, Kao WHL, Li M, Abboud HE, Adler SG, Iyengar SK, Kimmel PL, Hanson RL, Nicholas SB, Rasooly RS, Lu L, Hicks PJ, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, et al. Genetic association and gene-gene interaction analyses in African American dialysis patients with nondiabetic nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;59(2):210-221.

Walford GA, Green T, Neale B, Isakova T, Rotter JI, Grant SFA, Fox CS, Pankow JS, Wilson JG, Meigs JB, Siscovick DS, Bowden DW, Daly MJ, Florez JC. Common genetic variants differentially influence the transition from clinically defined states of fasting glucose metabolism. Diabetologia. 2012;55(2):331-339.

Hester JM, Wing MR, Li J, Palmer ND, Xu J, Hicks PJ, Roh BH, Norris JM, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Ng MCY. Implication of European-derived adiposity loci in African Americans. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36(3):465-473.

Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Rich SS. Genetic basis of kidney disease In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Skorecki K, Yu ASL, Brenner BM, eds. Brenner & Rector's the kidney, vol 2. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders;2012: 1554-1569.

Cooke JN, Bostrom MA, Hicks PJ, Ng MCY, Hellwege JN, Comeau ME, Divers J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Polymorphisms in MYH9 are associated with diabetic nephropathy in European Americans. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27(4):1505-1511.

Cox AJ, Agarwal S, Herrington DM, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. C-reactive protein concentration predicts mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabet Med. 2012;29(6):767-770.

Saxena R, Elbers CC, Guo Y, Peter I, Gaunt TR, Mega JL, Lanktree MB, Tare A, Castillo BA, Bowden DW, et al. Large-scale gene-centric meta-analysis across 39 studies identifies type 2 diabetes loci. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90(3):410-425.

Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Guo X, Bowden DW, Bertoni AG, Sale MM, Yao J, Bluemke DA, Goodarzi MO, Chen YI, Vaidya D, Raffel LJ, Papanicolaou GJ, Meigs JB, Pankow JS. Fasting glucose GWAS candidate region analysis across ethnic groups in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Genet Epidemiol. 2012;36(4):384-391.

Bowden DW, Freedman BI. The challenging search for diabetic nephropathy genes [commentary]. Diabetes. 2012;61(8):1923-1924.

Cooke JN, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Association of MYH9/APOL1 with chronic kidney disease in a UK population [reply to letter]. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27(9):3660-3662.

Bostrom MA, Perlegas P, Lu L, Hicks PJ, Hawkins G, Ng MC, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Relevance of the ACTN4 gene in African-Americans with non-diabetic end-stage renal disease. Am J Nephrol. 2012;36(3):252-260.

Azeem A, Yeboah J, Soliman EZ, Cox A, Bertoni A, Herrington DM, Bowden DW. Heart rate corrected QT interval is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in a diabetic population--the Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. Circulation. 2012;126(21 Suppl):A15550.

Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Turner J, Nunez M, High KP, Spainhour M, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Reeves-Daniel AM, Murea M, Rocco MV, Divers J. Association of APOL1 variants with mild kidney disease in the first-degree relatives of African American patients with non-diabetic end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 2012;82(7):805-811.

Murea M, Register TC, Divers J, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Hightower CR, Xu J, Smith SC, Hruska KA, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Relationships between serum MCP-1 and subclinical kidney disease: African American-Diabetes Heart Study. BMC Nephrol. 2012;13(1):148.

Zaitlen N, Lindstrom S, Pasaniuc B, Cornelis M, Genovese G, Pollack S, Barton A, Bickeboller H, Bowden DW, Eyre S, Freedman BI, Friedman DJ, Field JK, Groop L, Haugen A, Heinrich J, Henderson BE, Hicks PJ, Hocking LJ,. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies. PLoS Genet. 2012;8(11):e1003032.

Liu CT, Ng MCY, Rybin D, Adeyemo A, Bielinski SJ, Boerwinkle E, Borecki I, Cade B, Chen YDI, Djousse L, Fornage M, Goodarzi MO, Grant SFA, Guo X, Harris T, Kabagambe E, Kizer JR, Liu Y, Lunetta KL, Mukamal K, Nettleton JA,. Transferability and fine-mapping of glucose and insulin quantitative trait loci across populations: CARe, the Candidate Gene Association Resource. Diabetologia. 2012;55(11):2970-2984.

An SS, Hanley AJ, Ziegler JT, Brown WM, Haffner SM, Norris JM, Rotter JI, Guo X, Chen Y-DI, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Palmer ND. Association between ADIPOQ SNPs with plasma adiponectin and glucose homeostasis and adiposity phenotypes in the IRAS Family Study. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;107(4):721-728.

Freedman BI, Murea M, Rocco MV, Ma L, Bowden DW, Ornelles DA, Kleiboeker S, Langefeld CD, Turner J, Divers J. JC polyoma virus interacts with apolipoprotein L1 genetic risk in African Americans with non-diabetic nephropathy [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23():178A.

Wagenknecht LE, Divers J, Bertoni AG, Langefeld CD, Carr JJ, Bowden DW, Elbein SC [deceased], Shea S, Lewis CE, Freedman BI. Correlates of coronary artery calcified plaque in blacks and whites with type 2 diabetes. Ann Epidemiol. 2011;21(1):34-41.

Gopalakrishnan I, Iskandar SS, Daeihagh P, Divers J, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Hicks PJ, Rocco MV, Freedman BI. Coincident idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis collapsing variant and diabetic nephropathy in an African American homozygous for MYH9 risk variants. Hum Pathol. 2011;42(2):291-294.

McDonough CW, Palmer ND, Hicks PJ, Roh BH, An SS, Cooke JN, Hester JM, Wing MR, Bostrom MA, Rudock ME, Lewis JP, Talbert ME, Blevins RA, Lu L, Ng MCY, Divers J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, et al. A genome-wide association study for diabetic nephropathy genes in African Americans. Kidney Int. 2011;79(5):563-572.


Palmer ND, Hester JM, An SS, Adeyemo A, Rotimi C, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Ng MCY, Bowden DW. Resequencing and analysis of variation in the TCF7L2 gene in African Americans suggests that SNP rs7903146 is the causal diabetes susceptibility variant. Diabetes. 2011;60(2):662-668.

Wagenknecht LE, Palmer ND, Bowden DW, Rotter JI, Norris JM, Ziegler J, Chen YI, Haffner S, Scherzinger A, Langefeld CD. Association of PNPLA3 with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a minority cohort: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Liver Int. 2011;31(3):412-416.

Lehtinen AB, Cox AJ, Ziegler JT, Voruganti VS, Xu J, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Comuzzie AG, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW. Genetic mapping of vascular calcified plaque loci on chromosome 16p in European Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study. Ann Hum Genet. 2011;75(2):222-235.


Lettre G, Palmer CD, Young T, Ejebe KG, Allayee H, Benjamin EJ, Bowden DW, Kritchevsky SB, Rudock ME, Liu Y, et al. Genome-wide association study of coronary heart disease and its risk factors in 8,090 African Americans: the NHLBI CARe Project. PLoS Genet. 2011;7(2):e1001300.

Agarwal S, Morgan T, Herrington DM, Xu J, Cox AJ, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Coronary calcium score and prediction of all-cause mortality in diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(5):1219-1224.

Reeves-Daniel AM, DePalma JA, Bleyer AJ, Rocco MV, Murea M, Adams PL, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Hicks PJ, Stratta RJ, Lin J-J, Kiger DF, Gautreaux MD, Divers J, Freedman BI. The APOL1 gene and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2011;11(5):1025-1030.

Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Lu L, Divers J, Comeau ME, Palmer ND, Hicks PJ, Bostrom MA, Cooke JN, McDonough CW, Bowden DW, et al. Differential effects of MYH9 and APOL1 risk variants on FRMD3 association with diabetic ESRD in African Americans. PLoS Genet. 2011;7(6):e1002150.

Murea M, Lu L, Ma L, Hicks PJ, Divers J, McDonough CW, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Genome-wide association scan for survival on dialysis in African-Americans with type 2 diabetes. Am J Nephrol. 2011;33(6):502-509.

Mathias RA, Sergeant S, Hugenschmidt CE, Ziegler JT, Ivester P, Case D, Freedman BI, Rudock ME, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Chilton FH, et al. The impact of FADS genetic variants on omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in African Americans. BMC Genet. 2011;12():article 50.

Igo RP Jr, Iyengar SK, Nicholas SB, Goddard KAB, Langefeld CD, Hanson RL, Duggirala R, Divers J, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, et al. Genomewide linkage scan for diabetic renal failure and albuminuria: the FIND study. Am J Nephrol. 2011;33(5):381-389.

Divers J, Register TC, Langefeld CD, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Xu J, Hruska KA, Freedman BI. Relationships between calcified atherosclerotic plaque and bone mineral density in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(7):1554-1560.

Mychaleckyj JC, Farber EA, Chmielewski J, Artale J, Light LS, Bowden DW, Hou X, Marcovina SM. Buffy coat specimens remain viable as a DNA source for highly multiplexed genome-wide genetic tests after long term storage. J Transl Med. 2011;9():article 91.

Sibble SP, Talbert ME, Bowden DW, Haffner SM, Taylor KD, Chen Y-DI, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Norris JM. RGS6 variants are associated with dietary fat intake in Hispanics: the IRAS Family Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(7):1433-1438.

Wing MR, Ziegler JM, Langefeld CD, Roh BH, Palmer ND, Mayer-Davis EJ, Rewers MJ, Haffner SM, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW. Analysis of FTO gene variants with obesity and glucose homeostasis measures in the multiethnic Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study cohort. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011;35(9):1173-1182.

Cox AJ, Wing MR, Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Smith SC, Xu J, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Association of PNPLA3 SNP rs738409 with liver density in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab. 2011;37(5):452-455.

Murea M, Register TC, Divers J, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Smith SC, Hruska KA, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Relationships between serum MCP-1 and subclinical kidney disease: African American-Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22(Abstract Suppl):715A.

Freedman BI, Hicks PJ, Langefeld CD, Lu L, Bleyer AJ, Divers J, Nachman PH, Derebail VK, Bowden DW. Sickle cell trait is not associated with ESRD susceptibility in African Americans [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22(Abstract Suppl):463A.

Winkler CA, Freedman BI, Kao WHL, Langefeld CD, Astor BC, Nelson GW, Comeau ME, Bowden DW, Kopp JB, Lipkowitz MS. APOL1 risk genotypes are enriched in African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) participants, particularly among those with kidney disease progression [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22(Abstract Suppl):458A-459A.

Kopp JB, Freedman BI, Winkler CA, Nelson GW, Bowden DW, Comeau ME, Langefeld CD. APOL1 and MYH9 genetic variants are independently associated with kidney disease risk in African Americans [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22(Abstract Suppl):460A-461A.

Cox AJ, Lehtinen AB, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Polymorphisms in the selenoprotein S gene are associated with quantitative measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in the Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. Diabetes. 2011;60(Suppl 1):A5.

Hugenschmidt C, Hayasaka S, Langefeld C, Freedman B, Carr JJ, Williamson J, Bowden DW. Cognitive performance is related to vascular disease and diabetes in a family study of type 2 diabetes [abstract]. Diabetes. 2011;60(Suppl 1):A225-A226.

Agarwal S, Cox AJ, Herrington DM, Morgan T, Xu J, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Coronary artery calcium score and prediction of cardiovascular mortality in diabetes. Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. In: Meeting Abstracts of the 71st Scientific Sessions; 2011 June 24-28; San Diego (CA). 2011;():2-LB.

Hester J, Li J, Hicks P, Langefeld C, Freedman B, Bowden D, Ng M. Implication of European-derived adiposity loci in African Americans [abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics; 2011 Oct 11-15; Montreal (Canada). 2011;():.

Price A, Zaitlen N, Lindstrom S, Pasaniuc B, Cornelis M, Genovese G, Bowden D, Freedman B, Hicks P, Langefeld C, et al. Liability threshold modeling of covariates increases power in case-control association studies [abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics; 2011 Oct 11-15; Montreal (Canada). 2011;():.

Adams JN, Cox AJ, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Effects of variation in the haptoglobin gene on subclinical cardiovascular disease in the Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics; 2011 Oct 11-15; Montreal (Canada). 2011;():.

Ng MCY, Sajuthi S, Cupples A, Divers J, Dupuis J, Fornage M, Kao L, Larkin E, Freedman B, Bowden DW, et al. Genetic ancestry and population structure of geographically separated African American populations [abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics; 2011 Oct 11-15; Montreal (Canada). 2011;():.

Hellwege JN, Hicks PJ, Palmer ND, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Examination of rare variants in HNF4 alpha in European Americans with type 2 diabetes [abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics; 2011 Oct 11-15; Montreal (Canada). 2011;():.

Cooke J, Ng M, Lu L, Li J, An S, Hester J, Xu J, Freedman B, Langefeld C, Bowden D, Palmer N. Genetic risk assessment of type 2 diabetes associated polymorphisms in African-Americans [abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 61st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics; 2011 Oct 11-15; Montreal (Canada). 2011;():.

Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Risk factors: race, renal disease and albuminuria [editorial]. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011;7(12):679-680.

Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Murea M, Ma L, Otvos JD, Turner J, Antinozzi PA, Divers J, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Rocco MV, Parks JS. Apolipoprotein L1 nephropathy risk variants associate with HDL subfraction concentration in African Americans. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26(11):3805-3810.

Hicks PJ, Langefeld CD, Lu L, Bleyer AJ, Divers J, Nachman PH, Derebail VK, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Sickle cell trait is not independently associated with susceptibility to end-stage renal disease in African Americans. Kidney Int. 2011;80(12):1339-1343.

Rudock ME, Cox AJ, Ziegler JT, Lehtinen AB, Connelly JJ, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Langefeld CD, Hauser ER, Horne BD, Bowden DW. Cigarette smoking status has a modifying effect on the association between polymorphisms in KALRN and measures of cardiovascular risk in the Diabetes Heart Study. Genes Genomics. 2011;33(5):483-490.

Agarwal S, Herrington DM, Cox AJ, Morgan TM, Xu J, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. The association of vascular calcification and all cause mortality in diabetes: Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. Circulation. 2011;124(21 Suppl):A8165.

Divers J, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Ethnic differences in the relationship between albuminuria and calcified atherosclerotic plaque: the African American-Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(1):131-138.

Leak TS, Langefeld CD, Keene KL, Gallagher CJ, Lu L, Mychaleckyj JC, Rich SS, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Sale MM. Chromosome 7p linkage and association study for diabetes related traits and type 2 diabetes in an African-American population enriched for nephropathy. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11(1):article 22.

Miller MR, Zhang W, Sibbel SP, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Haffner SM, Bergman RN, Norris JM, Fingerlin TE. Variant in the 3' region of the IkappaBalpha gene associated with insulin resistance in Hispanic Americans: the IRAS Family Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18(3):555-562.

Palmer ND, Langefeld CD, Ziegler JT, Hsu F, Haffner SM, Fingerlin T, Norris JM, Chen YI, Rich SS, Bowden DW, et al. Candidate loci for insulin sensitivity and disposition index from a genome-wide association analysis of Hispanic participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis (IRAS) Family Study. Diabetologia. 2010;53(2):281-289.

Palmer ND, Mychaleckyj JC, Langefeld CD, Ziegler JT, Williams AH, Bryer-Ash M, Bowden DW. Evaluation of DLG2 as a positional candidate for disposition index in African-Americans from the IRAS Family Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;87(1):69-76.

Freedman BI, Wagenknecht LE, Hairston KG, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Gordon EJ, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Divers J. Vitamin D, adiposity, and calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African-Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(3):1076-1083.

Nelson GW, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, An P, Hicks PJ, Bostrom MA, Johnson RC, Kopp JB, Winkler CA. Dense mapping of MYH9 localizes the strongest kidney disease associations to the region of introns 13 to 15. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19(9):1805-1815.

Chen Y, Lipkowitz MS, Salem RM, Fung MM, Bhatnagar V, Mahata M, Nievergelt CM, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, et al. Progression of chronic kidney disease: adrenergic genetic influence on glomerular filtration rate decline in hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32(1):23-30.

Burdon KP, Rudock ME, Lehtinen AB, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Register TC, Liu Y, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Hedrick CC, et al. Human lipoxygenase pathway gene variation and association with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in the Diabetes Heart Study. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010():170153.

Doran AC, Lehtinen AB, Meller N, Lipinski MJ, Slayton RP, Oldham SN, Skaflen MD, Yeboah J, Rich SS, Bowden DW, et al. Id3 is a novel atheroprotective factor containing a functionally significant single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with intima-media thickness in humans. Circ Res. 2010;106(7):1303-1311.

Reeves-Daniel AM, Iskandar SS, Bowden DW, Bostrom MA, Hicks PJ, Comeau ME, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Is collapsing C1q nephropathy another MYH9-associated kidney disease? A case report. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55(5):e21-e24.

Freedman BI, Edberg JC, Comeau ME, Murea M, Bowden DW, Divers J, Alarcon GS, Brown EE, McGwin G Jr, Langefeld CD, et al. The non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) is not associated with lupus nephritis in African Americans. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32(1):66-72.

Bostrom MA, Lu L, Chou J, Hicks PJ, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Candidate genes for non-diabetic ESRD in African Americans: a genome-wide association study using pooled DNA. Hum Genet. 2010;128(2):195-204.

Genovese G, Friedman DJ, Ross MD, Lecordier L, Uzureau P, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Oleksyk TK, Hicks PJ, et al. Association of trypanolytic ApoL1 variants with kidney disease in African Americans. Science. 2010;329(5993):841-845.

Lewis JP, Palmer ND, Ellington JB, Divers J, Ng MCY, Lu L, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Analysis of candidate genes on chromosome 20q12-13.1 reveals evidence for BMI mediated association of PREX1 with type 2 diabetes in European Americans. Genomics. 2010;96(4):211-219.

Bostrom MA, Hicks PJ, Lu L, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Association of polymorphisms in the klotho gene with severity of non-diabetic ESRD in African Americans. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25(10):3348-3355.

Divers J, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Ding J, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Regional adipose tissue associations with calcified atherosclerotic plaque: African American-Diabetes Heart Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18(10):2004-2009.

Freedman BI, Kopp JB, Langefeld CD, Genovese G, Friedman DJ, Nelson GW, Winkler CA, Bowden DW, Pollak MR. The apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene and nondiabetic nephropathy in African Americans. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(9):1422-1426.

Tang SCW, Leung VTM, Chan LYY, Ma L, Elbein SC [deceased], Bowden DW, Hicks PJ, Comeau ME, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, et al. The acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase beta (ACACB) gene is associated with nephropathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25(12):3931-3934.

Divers J, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Register TC, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Ethnic differences in the relationship between pericardial adipose tissue and coronary artery calcified plaque: African-American-diabetes heart study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(12):5382-5389.

Bowden DW, An SS, Palmer ND, Brown WM, Norris JM, Haffner SM, Hawkins GA, Guo X, Wagenknecth LE, Langefeld CD, et al. Molecular basis of a linkage peak: exome sequencing and family-based analysis identify a rare genetic variant in the ADIPOQ gene in the IRAS Family Study. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19(20):4112-4120.

Bowden DW, Akamizu T, Palmer ND, An S, Brown MD, Haffner SM, Norris JM, Rotter JI, Guo XQ, Chen I. Identification and evaluation of an ADIPOQ gene mutation in Hispanic American families from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study [abstract]. Endocr J. 2010;57(Suppl 2):S329.

Engelman CD, Meyers KJ, Ziegler JT, Taylor KD, Palmer ND, Haffner SM, Fingerlin TE, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, et al. Genome-wide association study of vitamin D concentrations in Hispanic Americans: the IRAS Family Study. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;122(4):186-192.

Bowden DW, Cox AJ, Freedman BI, Hugenschimdt CE [sic] [Hugenschmidt CE], Wagenknecht LE, Herrington D, Agarwal S, Register TC, Maldjian JA, Ng MC-Y, Hsu F-C, Langefeld CD, Williamson JD, Carr JJ. Review of the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) family of studies: a comprehensively examined sample for genetic and epidemiological studies of type 2 diabetes and its complications. Rev Diabet Stud. 2010;7(3):188-201.

Mcdonough CW, Allred ND, Hicks PJ, Bostrom MA, Lu L, Ng M, Divers J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. A genome wide association study for diabetic nephropathy genes in African Americans [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(Suppl):729A.

Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Lu L, Divers J, Comeau ME, Allred ND, Hicks PJ, Bostrom MA, Cooke JN, Mcdonough CW, Bowden DW, et al. Accounting for risk variants in MYH9 reveals FRMD3 association with diabetic ESRD in African Americans [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(Suppl):728A.

Bostrom MA, Lu L, Chou JW, Hicks PJ, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans: candidate genes from analysis of a pooled DNA-based genome wide association study (GWAS) [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(Suppl):89A.

Bostrom MA, Hicks PJ, Lu L, Ng M, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Sequencing of alpha-actinin-4 to identify variants associated with non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(Suppl):729A.

Murea M, Lu L, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Divers J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Genetic variants identified by GWAS suggest intracellular calcium, vascular remodeling, and cardiac repolarization pathways impact dialytic survival in African Americans with diabetes [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(Suppl):730A.

Cooke JN, Bostrom MA, Hicks PJ, Ng M, Comeau ME, Divers J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Polymorphisms in MYH9 are associated with diabetic nephropathy in European Americans [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21(Suppl):731A.

Goodarzi MO, Palmer ND, Stefanovski D, Taylor KD, Jones MR, Cui J, Guo X, Chen YDI, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, et al. Exostosin 2: a replicated quantitative trait locus for insulin clearance [abstract]. Endocr Rev. 2010;31(3 Suppl 1):S549.

Agarwal S, Morgan T, Herrington D, Xu J, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Risk stratification in a diabetic population with metabolic syndrome using coronary calcium scores: Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. Circulation. 2010;122(21 Suppl):abstr 9342.

Lehtinen AB, Daniel KR, Shah SA, Nelson MR, Ziegler JT, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Herrington DM, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW. Relationship between genetic variants in myocardial sodium and potassium channel genes and QT interval duration in diabetics: the Diabetes Heart Study. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2009;14(1):72-79.

Talbert ME, Langefeld CD, Ziegler J, Mychaleckyj JC, Haffner SM, Norris JM, Bowden DW. Polymorphisms near SOCS3 are associated with obesity and glucose homeostasis traits in Hispanic Americans from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Hum Genet. 2009;125(2):153-162.

Bleyer AJ, Hire D, Russell GB, Xu J, Divers J, Shihabi Z, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Ethnic variation in the correlation between random serum glucose concentration and glycated haemoglobin. Diabet Med. 2009;26(2):128-133.

Freedman BI, Hicks PJ, Bostrom MA, Cunningham ME, Liu Y, Divers J, Kopp JB, Winkler CA, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, et al. Polymorphisms in the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) are strongly associated with end-stage renal disease historically attributed to hypertension in African Americans. Kidney Int. 2009;75(7):736-745.

Leak TS, Perlegas PS, Smith SG, Keene KL, Hicks PJ, Langefeld CD, Mychaleckyj JC, Kirk JK, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Sale MM, et al. Variants in intron 13 of the ELMO1 gene are associated with diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. Ann Hum Genet. 2009;73(2):152-159.

Bostrom MA, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Liu L, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW. Association of adiponectin gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes in an African American population enriched for nephropathy. Diabetes. 2009;58(2):499-504.

Friedman DJ, Talbert ME, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Mukanya Y, Enjyoji K, Robson SC. Functional ENTPD1 polymorphisms in African Americans with diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Diabetes. 2009;58(4):999-1006.

Rudock ME, Liu Y, Ziegler JT, Allen SG, Lehtinen AB, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW. Association of polymorphisms in cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 with coronary and carotid calcium in the Diabetes Heart Study. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203(2):459-465.

Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Pankow JS, Wassel CL, Goodarzi MO, Guo X, Shea SJ, Hsu F-C, Bowden DW. Association of ADIPOQ, TNFA, and TNFRSF1A single-nucleotide polymorphisms with insulin resistance; the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) [abstract]. Circulation. 2009;119(10):e328.

Wing MR, Ziegler J, Langefeld CD, Ng MCY, Haffner SM, Norris JM, Goodarzi MO, Bowden DW. Analysis of FTO gene variants with measures of obesity and glucose homeostasis in the IRAS Family Study. Hum Genet. 2009;125(5-6):615-626.

Sutton BS, Palmer ND, Langefeld CD, Xue B, Proctor A, Ziegler JT, Haffner SM, Norris JM, Bowden DW. Association of SSTR2 polymorphisms and glucose homeostasis phenotypes: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Diabetes. 2009;58(6):1457-1462.

Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Rich SS. Susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy In: Lifton RP, Somlo S, Giebisch GH, Seldin DW, eds. Genetic diseases of the kidney. Boston (MA): Elsevier/Academic Press;2009: 771-792.

Rich SS, Goddarzi MO, Palmer ND, Langefeld CD, Ziegler J, Haffner SM, Bryer-Ash M, Norris JM, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, et al. A genome-wide association scan for acute insulin response to glucose in Hispanic-Americans: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRAS FS). Diabetologia. 2009;52(7):1326-1333.

McDonough CW, Hicks PJ, Lu L, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. The influence of carnosinase gene polymorphisms on diabetic nephropathy risk in African-Americans. Hum Genet. 2009;126(2):265-275.

Talbert ME, Langefeld CD, Ziegler JT, Haffner SM, Norris JM, Bowden DW. INSIG2 SNPs associated with obesity and glucose homeostasis traits in Hispanics: the IRAS Family Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(8):1554-1562.

Doran AC, Lehtinen AB, Meller N, Lipinski MJ, Yeboah J, Slayton RP, Rich SS, Bowden DW, McNamara CA. Inhibitor of differentiation-3, a novel atheroprotective factor, contains a nonsynonymous SNP that predicts intima-media thickness in humans [abstract]. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29(7):e58-e59.

Schmitz KJ, Skinner HG, Bautista LE, Fingelin TE, Langefeld CD, Hicks PJ, Haffner SM, Bryer-Ash M, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, et al. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with blood pressure in predominantly 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficient Hispanic and African Americans. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22(8):867-870.

Freedman BI, Nagaraj SK, Lin JJ, Gautreaux MD, Bowden DW, Iskandar SS, Stratta RJ, Rogers J, Hartmann EL, Farney AC, Reeves-Daniel AM. Potential donor-recipient MYH9 genotype interactions in posttransplant nephrotic syndrome after pediatric kidney transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2009;9(10):2435-2440.

Bowden DW, Allred NP, Ng MC, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Genome wide analysis of African American type 2 diabetes [abstract]. Diabetologia. 2009;52(Suppl 1):S37.

Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Ziegler JT, Langefeld CD, Lehtinen AB, Rudock ME, Lenchik L, Hruska KA, Register TC, Carr JJ. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) gene polymorphisms are associated with inverse relationships between vascular calcification and BMD: the Diabetes Heart Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24(10):1719-1727.

Norris JM, Langefeld CD, Talbert ME, Wing MR, Haritunians T, Fingerlin TE, Hanley AJG, Ziegler JT, Bowden DW, Wagenknecht LE, et al. Genome-wide association study and follow-up analysis of adiposity traits in Hispanic Americans: the IRAS Family Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(10):1932-1941.

Malhotra A, Igo RP Jr, Thameem F, Kao WHL, Abboud HE, Adler SG, Arar NH, Bowden DW, Duggirala R, Freedman BI, et al. Genome-wide linkage scans for type 2 diabetes mellitus in four ethnically diverse populations--significant evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in African Americans: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes research group. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2009;25(8):740-747.

Freedman BI, Hicks PJ, Bostrom MA, Comeau ME, Divers J, Bleyer AJ, Kopp JB, Winkler CA, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, et al. Non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene MYH9 associations in African Americans with clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated ESRD. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24(11):3366-3371.

McDonough CW, Bostrom MA, Lu L, Hicks PJ, Langefeld CD, Divers J, Mychaleckyj JC, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Genetic analysis of diabetic nephropathy on chromosome 18 in African Americans: linkage analysis and dense SNP mapping. Hum Genet. 2009;126(6):805-817.

Bostrom MA, Lu L, Chou J, Hicks PJ, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Genome wide association study of non-diabetic end stage renal disease in African Americans using pooled DNA [abstract]. Presented at the 59th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics, October 21, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii. 2009;():A676.

Hester JM, Palmer ND, Ng MCY, Adeyemo A, Rotimi C, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Comprehensive genetic evaluation of variation at the TCF7L2 locus in African Americans [abstract]. Diabetes. 2009;58(Suppl 1):A304.

Divers J, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Hightower RC, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Ethnic differences in the relationship between albuminuria and calcified atherosclerotic plaque: African American-Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(Renal Week 2009 Abstract Issue):395A.

McDonough CW, Palmer ND, Bostrom MA, Hicks PJ, Lu L, Divers J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in African Americans (AA) [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(Renal Week 2009 Abstract Issue):433A.

Freedman BI, Bostrom MA, Cooke JN, Divers J, Langefeld CD, Nelson RG, Kretzler M, Maeda S, Bowden DW. ACACB gene associations with type 2 diabetes-associated ESRD [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(Renal Week 2009 Abstract Issue):55A.

Bostrom MA, Hicks PJ, Lu L, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Association of polymorphisms in the Klotho gene with age at onset of non-diabetic ESRD in African Americans [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(Renal Week 2009 Abstract Issue):431A.

Freedman BI, Hicks PJ, Bostrom MA, Comeau ME, Divers J, Bleyer AJ, Kopp JB, Winkler CA, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, et al. Non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene MYH9 associations in African Americans (AA) with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)-associated ESRD [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(Renal Week 2009 Abstract Issue):431A.

Lipkowitz MS, Iyengar SK, Molineros J, Langefeld CD, Comeau ME, Klotman PE, Bowden DW, Freedman RG, Khitrov G, Freedman BI, et al. Association analysis of the non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) in hypertensive nephropathy: results from the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(Renal Week 2009 Abstract Issue):56A.

Bostrom MA, Lu L, Chou J, Hicks PJ, Xu J, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Candidate genes for non-diabetic end stage renal disease in African Americans identified by genome-wide association [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(Renal Week 2009 Abstract Issue):431A.

Winkler C, Nelson GW, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Kopp JB. MYH9 fine mapping refines region of association with chronic and end stage kidney diseases to introns 12 and 13 [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(Renal Week 2009 Abstract Issue):431A.

Carr JJ, Register TC, Hsu F-C, Lohman K, Lenchik L, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Xu J, Wagenknecht LE, Freedman BI, et al. Calcified atherosclerotic plaque and bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study. Bone. 2008;42(1):43-52.

Saran AM, Hsu F-C, Lohman KK, Carr JJ, Bowden DW, Wagenknecht LE, Freedman BI. Kidney volume associations with subclinical renal and cardiovascular disease: the Diabetes Heart Study. Am J Nephrol. 2008;28(3):366-371.

Schelling JR, Abboud HE, Nicholas SB, Pahl MV, Sedor JR, Adler SG, Arar NH, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Rich SS, et al. Genome-wide scan for estimated glomerular filtration rate in multi-ethnic diabetic populations: the Family Investigatin of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND). Diabetes. 2008;57(1):235-243.

Palmer ND, Lehtinen AB, Langefeld CD, Campbell JK, Haffner SM, Norris JM, Bergman RN, Goodarzi MO, Rotter JI, Bowden DW. Association of TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms with reduced acute insulin response in Hispanic Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(1):304-309.

Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Rich SS, Xu J, Wagenknecht LE, Ziegler J, Hicks PJ, Langefeld CD. Genome-wide linkage scans for renal function and albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabet Med. 2008;25(3):268-276.

Nelson MR, Daniel KR, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Prineas RJ, Bowden DW, Herrington DM. Associations between electrocardiographic interval durations and coronary artery calcium scores: the Diabetes Heart Study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2008;31(3):314-321.

Salem RM, Cadman PE, Chen Y, Rao F, Wen G, Hamilton BA, Rana BK, Bowden DW, Hicks PJ, Freedman BI, et al. Chromogranin A polymorphisms are associated with hypertensive renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19(3):600-614.

Keene KL, Mychaleckyj JC, Smith SG, Leak TS, Perlegas PS, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Rich SS, Bowden DW, Sale MM. Association of the distal region of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 gene with type 2 diabetes in an African-American population enriched for nephropathy. Diabetes. 2008;57(4):1057-1062.

Lehtinen AB, Newton-Cheh C, Ziegler JT, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Daniel KR, Herrington DM, Bowden DW. Association of NOS1AP genetic variants with QT interval duration in families from the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes. 2008;57(4):1108-1114.

Palmer ND, Goodarzi MO, Langefeld CD, Ziegler J, Norris JM, Haffner SM, Bryer-Ash M, Bergman RN, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, et al. Quantitative trait analysis of type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified from whole genome association studies in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Diabetes. 2008;57(4):1093-1100.

Keene KL, Mychaleckyj JC, Smith SG, Leak TS, Perlegas PS, Langefeld CD, Herrington DM, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Sale MM, et al. Comprehensive evaluation of the estrogen receptor alpha gene reveals further evidence for association with type 2 diabetes enriched for nephropathy in an African American population. Hum Genet. 2008;123(4):333-341.

Burdon KP, Lehtinen AB, Langefeld CD, Carr JJ, Rich SS, Freedman BI, Herrington D, Bowden DW. Genetic analysis of the soluble epoxide hydrolase gene, EPHX2, in subclinical cardiovascular disease in the Diabetes Heart Study. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2008;5(2):128-134.

Hicks PJ, Staten JL, Palmer ND, Langefeld CD, Ziegler JT, Keene KL, Sale MM, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Association analysis of the ephrin-B2 gene in African-Americans with end-stage renal disease. Am J Nephrol. 2008;28(6):914-920.

Leak TS, Mychaleckyj JC, Smith SG, Keene KL, Gordon CJ, Hicks PJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Sale MM. Evaluation of a SNP map of 6q24-27 confirms diabetic nephropathy loci and identifies novel associations in type 2 diabetes patients with nephropathy from an African-American population. Hum Genet. 2008;124(1):63-71.

Liu Y, Freedman BI, Burdon KP, Langefeld CD, Howard T, Herrington D, Goff DC Jr, Bowden DW, Wagenknecht LE, Rich SS, et al. Association of arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase genotype variation and glycemic control with albuminuria in type 2 diabetes. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;52(2):242-250.

Keene KL, Mychaleckyj JC, Leak TS, Smith SG, Perlegas PS, Divers J, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Sale MM. Exploration of the utility of ancestry informative markers for genetic association studies of African Americans with type 2 diabetes and end stage renal disease. Hum Genet. 2008;124(2):147-154.

Lewis JP, Palmer ND, Hicks PJ, Sale MM, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Divers J, Bowden DW. Association analysis in African Americans of European-derived type 2 diabetes single nucleotide polymorphisms from whole-genome association studies. Diabetes. 2008;57(8):2220-2225.

Zhang D, Freedman BI, Flekac M, Santos E, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Efendic S, Brismar K, Gu HF. Evaluation of genetic association and expression reduction of TRPC1 in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Am J Nephrol. 2008;29(3):244-251.

Kopp JB, Smith MW, Nelson GW, Johnson RC, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Oleksyk T, Mckenzie LM, Kajiyama H, Ahuja TS, et al. MYH9 is a major-effect risk gene for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Nat Genet. 2008;40(10):1175-1184.

Arar NH, Freedman BI, Adler SG, Iyengar SK, Chew EY, Davis MD, Satko SG, Bowden DW, Duggirala R, Elston RC, et al. Heritability of the severity of diabetic retinopathy: the FIND-Eye study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(9):3839-3845.

Bowden DW, Lewis JP, Allred ND, Langefeld CD, Divers J, Freedman BI. Genetic analysis of 'European' type 2 diabetes SNPs from whole genome association studies in African Americans [abstract]. Diabetologia. 2008;51(Suppl 1):S129.

Bowden DW, Lehtinen AB, Ziegler JT, Rudock ME, Xu J, Wagenknecht LE, Herrington DM, Rich SS, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Langefeld CD. Genetic epidemiology of subclinical cardiovascular disease in the Diabetes Heart Study. Ann Hum Genet. 2008;72(Pt 5):598-610.

Engelman CD, Fingerlin TE, Langefeld CD, Hicks PJ, Rich SS, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW, Norris JM. Genetic and environmental determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in Hispanic and African Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(9):3381-3388.

Bento JL, Palmer ND, Zhong M, Roh B, Lewis JP, Wing MR, Pandya H, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, et al. Heterogeneity in gene loci associated with type 2 diabetes on human chromosome 20q13.1. Genomics. 2008;92(4):226-234.

McKimmie RL, Daniel KR, Carr JJ, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Register TC, Hsu F-C, Lohman KK, Weinberg RB, Wagenknecht LE. Hepatic steatosis and subclinical cardiovascular disease in a cohort enriched for type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103(12):3029-3035.

Kopp J, Smith M, Nelson G, Johnson R, Freedman B, Bowden D, Oleksyk T, McKenzie L, Kajiyama H, Ahuja T, et al. Genome wide admixture mapping identifies MYH9 as a major effect risk gene for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and hypertensive end-stage kidney disease [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19():57A-58A.

Freedman BI, Hicks PJ, Bostrom MA, Divers J, Winkler CA, Kopp JB, Nelson GW, Cunningham ME, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW. Non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) gene associations in African Americans (AA) with non-diabetic ESRD [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19():132A.

McDonough CW, Hicks PJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Association of the carnosinase genes (CNDP1 and CNDP2) with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in African Americans (AA) [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19():132A.

Palmer ND, Langefeld CD, Bryer-Ash M, Rotter JI, Taylor KD, Bowden DW. Association of the Kir6.2 E23K variant with reduced acute insulin response in African-Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(12):4979-4983.

Bielinski SJ, Pankow JS, Hsu F-C, Adar SD, Jenny NS, Bowden DW, Wasserman BA, Arnett D. ICAM1 and VCAM1 polymorphisms, coronary artery calcium, and circulating levels of soluble ICAM-1: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Atherosclerosis. 2008;201(2):339-344.

Shah SA, Herrington DM, Howard TD, Burke GL, Kao WHLH, Guo XQ, Siscovick DS, Chakravarti A, Lima JA, Bowden DW, et al. Associations between genetic variations in NOS1AP and QT interval duration in four racial/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) [abstract]. Circulation. 2008;118(18 Suppl 2):S884.

Lehtinen AB, Burdon KP, Lewis JP, Langefeld CD, Ziegler JT, Rich SS, Register TC, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Association of alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein polymorphisms with subclinical atherosclerosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(1):345-352.

Gallagher CJ, Keene KL, Mychaleckyj JC, Langefeld CD, Hirschhorn JN, Gordon CJ, Freedman BI, Rich SS, Bowden DW, Sale MM, et al. Investigation of the estrogen receptor-alpha gene with type 2 diabetes and/or nephropathy in African-American and European-American populations. Diabetes. 2007;56(3):675-684.

Freedman BI, Hicks PJ, Sale MM, Pierson ED, Langefeld CD, Rich SS, Xu J, McDonough C, Janssen B, Bowden DW, et al. A leucine repeat in the carnosinase gene CNDP1 is associated with diabetic end-stage renal disease in European Americans. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22(4):1131-1135.

Lakoski SG, Li L, Langefeld CD, Liu Y, Howard TD, Brosnihan KB, Xu J, Bowden DW, Herrington DM. The association between innate immunity gene (IRAK1) and C-reactive protein in the Diabetes Heart Study. Exp Mol Pathol. 2007;82(3):280-283.

Nelson MR, Daniel KR, Carr JJ, Prineas RJ, Bowden DW, Herrington DM. QRS interval duration correlates with coronary artery calcium scores in the Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. Circulation. 2007;115(8):e285.

Suganuma N, Segade F, Matsuzu K, Bowden DW. Differential expression of facilitative glucose transporters in normal and tumour kidney tissues. BJU Int. 2007;99(5):1143-1149.

Yeboah J, Sane DC, Crouse JR, Herrington DM, Bowden DW. Low plasma levels of FGF-2 and PDGF-BB are associated with cardiovascular events in type II diabetes mellitus (Diabetes Heart Study). Dis Markers. 2007;23(3):173-178.

Iyengar SK, Abboud HE, Goddard KAB, Saad MF, Adler SG, Arar NH, Bowden DW, Duggirala R, Rich SS, Freedman BI, et al. Genome-wide scans for diabetic nephropathy and albuminuria in multiethnic populations: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND). Diabetes. 2007;56(6):1577-1585.

Gallagher CJ, Langefeld CD, Gordon CJ, Campbell JK, Mychalecky JC, Bryer-Ash M, Rich SS, Bowden DW, Sale MM. Association of the estrogen receptor-alpha gene with the metabolic syndrome and its component traits in African-American families: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Diabetes. 2007;56(8):2135-2141.

Leak TS, Keene KL, Langefeld CD, Gallagher CJ, Mychaleckyj JC, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Rich SS, Sale MM. Association of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 2 (PCSK2) gene with type 2 diabetes in an African American population. Mol Genet Metab. 2007;92(1-2):145-150.

Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. A comparison of risk factors for calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary, carotid, and abdominal aortic arteries: the Diabetes Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166(3):340-347.

Hanley AJG, Bowden D, Wagenknecht LE, Balasubramanyam A, Langfeld C [sic] [Langefeld C], Saad MF, Rotter JI, Guo X, Chen Y-DI, Bryer-Ash M, et al. Associations of adiponectin with body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic Hispanic and African Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(7):2665-2671.

Freedman BI, Bostrom M, Daeihagh P, Bowden DW. Genetic factors in diabetic nephropathy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(6):1306-1316.

Sale MM, Smith SG, Mychaleckyj JC, Keene KL, Langefeld CD, Leak TS, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Rich SS, Freedman BI. Variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are associated with type 2 diabetes in an African-American population enriched for nephropathy. Diabetes. 2007;56(10):2638-2642.

Leak TS, Perlegas PS, Smith SG, Hicks PJ, Li L, Langefeld CD, Keene KL, Sale MM, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Variants in the ELMO1 gene are associated with diabetes and nephropathy in African Americans [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18(Abstracts Issue):14A.

Salem RM, Cadman PE, Chen Y, Taupenot L, Rao F, Wen G, Hamilton BA, Bowden DW, Hicks PJ, Freedman BI, et al. Polymorphisms at the catecholamine storage vesicle biosynthetic locus chromogranin A are risk factors for hypertensive end stage renal disease [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18(Abstracts Issue):15A-16A.

Bostrom MA, Sale MM, Leak TS, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 and 3 gene associations in African Americans with type 2 diabetic end stage renal disease [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18(Abstracts Issue):606A.

McDonough CW, Hicks PJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Genetic evaluation of CNDP1 and CNDP2 polymorphisms in diabetic nephropathy [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18(Abstracts Issue):607A.

Parekh RS, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Satko SC [sic] [Satko SG], Rich SS, Warren S, Viverette S, Brooks G, Young R, Spainhour M, et al. Reliability of urinary albumin, total protein, and creatinine assays after prolonged storage: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(6):1156-1162.

Lehtinen AB, Newton-Cheh C, Ziegler JT, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Daniel KR, Herrington DM, Bowden DW. Association of NOS1AP genetic variants with QT interval duration in families from the Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. Circulation. 2007;116(16 Suppl):652-653.

Sutton BS, Langefeld CD, Campbell JK, Haffner SM, Norris JM, Scherzinger AL, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW. Genetic mapping of a 17q chromosomal region linked to obesity phenotypes in the IRAS family study. Int J Obes. 2006;30(9):1433-1441.

Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Sale MM, Langefeld CD, Rich SS. Genetic susceptibility contributes to renal and cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hypertension. 2006;48(1):8-13.

Register TC Lenchik L, Hsu FC, Lohman KK, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Carr JJ. Type 2 diabetes is not independently associated with spinal trabecular volumetric bone mineral density measured by QCT in the Diabetes Heart Study. Bone. 2006;39(3):628-633.

Bowden DW, Rudock M, Ziegler J, Lehtinen AB, Xu J, Wagenknecht LE, Herrington D, Rich SS, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Langefeld CD. Coincident linkage of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and measures of cardiovascular disease in a genome scan of the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes. 2006;55(7):1985-1994.

Segade F, Daly KA, Allred D, Hicks PJ, Cox M, Brown M, Hardisty-Hughes RE, Brown SDM, Rich SS, Bowden DW. Association of the FBX011 gene with chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent otitis media. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(7):729-733.

Bowden DW, Lohman K, Hsu F-C, Langefeld CD, Carr JJ, Lenchik L, Wagenknecht LE, Freedman BI, Herrington DM. Hormone replacement therapy is associated with increased C-reactive protein in women with type 2 diabetes in the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabet Med. 2006;23(7):763-767.

Liu Y, Herrington D, Burdon KP, Langefeld CD, Rich SS, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Wagenknecht LE. A functional polymorphism in the lymphotoxin-alpha gene is associated with carotid artery wall thickness: the Diabetes Heart Study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2006;13(4):655-657.

Leak TS, Mychaleckyj JC, Keene KL. Gordon CJ, Hicks PJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Sale MM. A dense SNP map of human chromosome 6q24-27 to localize a type 2 diabetes gene in an African American population [abstract]. Diabetes. 2006;55(Suppl 1):A261.

Sale MM, Gallagher CJ, Langefeld CD, Gordon CJ, Campbell JK, Mychaleckyj JC, Bryer-Ash M, Rich SS, Bowden DW. Association of the estrogen receptor alpha gene with glucose homeostasis, lipid, and obesity traits in African American families: the IRAS Family Study [abstract]. Diabetes. 2006;55(Suppl 1):A264.

Keene KL, Gallagher CJ, Mychaleckyj JC, Langefeld CD, Hirschhorn JN, Henderson BE, Freedman BI, Rich SS, Bowden DW, Sale MM, et al. Association of the estrogen receptor alpha gene with type 2 diabetes in African American and European American populations [abstract]. Diabetes. 2006;55(Suppl 1):A260.

Bowden DW, Lehtinen AB, Ziegler JT, Herrington D, Wagenknecht LE, Rich SS, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Langefeld CD. A genome scan for subclinical cardiovascular disease in the Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. Atheroscler Suppl. 2006;7(3):89.

Rich SS, Burdon KP, Langefeld CD, Liu Y, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Hedrick CC, Bowden DW. Human lipoxygenase gene variation in subclinical atherosclerosis: the Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. Atheroscler Suppl. 2006;7(3):335.

Freedman BI, Hsu FC, Lohman K, Bowden DW, Leonchik L [sic] [Lenchik L], Langefeld CD, Xu J, Register Tc, Rich SS, Wagenknecht LE. The relationship between calcified atherosclerotic plaque and bone mineral density: the Diabetes Heart Study [abstract]. Atheroscler Suppl. 2006;7(3):14.

Elbein SC, Wang X, Karim MA, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Shuldiner AR, Brancati FL, Kao WHL. Role of a proline insertion in the insulin promoter factor 1 (IPF1) gene in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2006;55(10):2909-2914.

Lange LA, Burdon K, Langefeld CD, Liu Y, Beck SR, Rich SS, Freedman BI, Brosnihan KB, Herrington DM, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW. Heritability and expression of C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes in the Diabetes Heart Study. Ann Hum Genet. 2006;70(Pt 6):717-725.

Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Rich SS, Wagenknecht LE, Ziegler J, Sale MM, Langefeld CD. Genome scans for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria: the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(Abstr Issue):84A.

Hicks PJ, Staten JL, Sale MM, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. The ephrin-B2 gene is not associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans (AA) [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(Abstr Issue):148A.

Saran A, Carr JJ, Lohman KK, Hsu F-C, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Renal volume (RV) is associated with sub-clinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) [abstract]. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(Abstr Issue):584A.

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