Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Education & Training

  • B.A., Vanderbilt University, 1972
  • Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1978
  • Fellowship, Duke University Hospital, 1981


  • Am Assn Of Advancement Of Scie
  • Am Diabetes Assn
  • Am Soc of Human Genetics
  • Fed Of Am Soc For Experimental
Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D.

Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D.

Director, Center for Diabetes Research
Associate Director, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Professor, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Center for Diabetes Research
Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Hypertension and Vascular Research Center
Maya Angelou Center for Health Equity
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Sticht Center on Aging
Center on Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism
Endocrinology and Metabolism

Research Interests

atherosclerosis/thrombosis, cognition/learning, communication/speech/hearing, diabetes, genetics/genome, metabolism, minority health issues, molecular biology/molecular me, neurosciences/behavior, vascular diseases

Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-7507 | Department: 336-713-7500


Recent Publications

Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Lu L, Palmer ND, Carrie Smith S, Bagwell BM, Hicks PJ, Xu J, Wagenknecht LE, Raffield LM, Register TC, Jeffrey Carr J, Bowden DW, Divers J. APOL1 associations with nephropathy, atherosclerosis, and all-cause mortality in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Kidney Int. 2015;87(1):176-181.

Sink KM, Divers J, Whitlow CT, Palmer ND, Smith SC, Xu J, Hugenschmidt CE, Wagner BC, Williamson JD, Bowden DW, Maldjian JA, Freedman BI. Cerebral structural changes in diabetic kidney disease: African American-Diabetes Heart Study MIND. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(2):206-212.

Palmer ND, Ng MC, Langefeld CD, Divers J, Lea JP, Okusa MD, Kimberly RP, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Lack of association of the APOL1 G3 haplotype in African Americans with ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;26(5):1021-1025.

Yeo NC, O'Meara CC, Bonomo JA, Veth KN, Tomar R, Flister MJ, Drummond IA, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Lazar J, Link BA, Jacob HJ. Shroom3 contributes to the maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier integrity. Genome Res. 2015;25(1):57-65.

Hellwege JN, Palmer ND, Brown MW, Ziegler JT, An SS, Guo X, Chen IY, Taylor K, Hawkins GA, Ng MC, Speliotes EK, Lorenzo C, Norris JM, Rotter JI, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW. Empirical characteristics of family-based linkage to a complex trait: the ADIPOQ region and adiponectin levels. Hum Genet. 2015;134(2):203-213.

Palmer ND, Goodarzi MO, Langefeld CD, Wang N, Guo X, Taylor KD, Fingerlin TE, Norris JM, Buchanan TA, Xiang AH , Haritunians T, Ziegler JT, Williams AH, Stefansovski D, Cui J, Mackay AW, Henkin LF, Bergman RN, Gao X, Gauderman J, Varma R, Hanis CL,. Genetic variants associated with quantitative glucose homeostasis traits translate to type 2 diabetes in Mexican Americans: the GUARDIAN (Genetics Underlying Diabetes in Hispanics) Consortium. Diabetes. 2015;64(5):1853-1866.

Raffield LM, Cox AJ, Hugenschmidt CE, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Williamson JD, Hsu F, Maldjian JA, Bowden DW. Heritability and genetic association analysis of neuroimaging measures in the Diabetes Heart Study. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36(3):1602.e7-15.

Wessel J, Chu AY, Willems SM, Wang S, Yaghootkar H, Brody JA, Dauriz M, Hivert MF, Raghavan S, Lipovich L, Hidalgo B, Fox K, Huffman JE, An P, Lu Y, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Grarup N, Ehm MG, Li L, Baldridge AS, Stancakova A, Abrol R, Besse C,. Low-frequency and rare exome chip variants associate with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Nat Commun. 2015;6():5897.

Raffield LM, Cox AJ, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Hicks PJ, Langefeld CD, Hsu FC, Bowden DW. Analysis of a cardiovascular disease genetic risk score in the Diabetes Heart Study. Acta Diabetol. 2015;52(4):743-751.

Belalcazar LM, Papandonatos GD, McCaffery JM, Peter I, Pajewski NM, Erar B, Allred ND, Balasubramanyam A, Bowden DW, Brautbar A, Pi-Sunyer FX, Ballantyne CM, Huggins GS. A common variant in the CLDN7/ELP5 locus predicts adiponectin change with lifestyle intervention and improved fitness in obese individuals with diabetes. Physiol Genomics. 2015;47(6):215-224.

Dauriz M, Porneala BC, Guo X, Bielak LF, Peyser PA, Durant NH, Carnethon MR, Bonadonna RC, Bonora E, Bowden DW, Florez JC, Fornage M, Hivert MF, Jacobs DR Jr, Kabagambe EK, Lewis CE, Murabito JM, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Rich SS, Vassy JL, Yao J,. Association of a 62 variants type 2 diabetes genetic risk score with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis: a transethnic, multicenter study. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2015;8(3):507-515.

Il'yasova D, Wagenknecht LE, Spasojevic I, Watkins S, Bowden D, Wang F, D'Agostino RB Jr. Urinary F2-isoprostanes and metabolic markers of fat oxidation. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015():729191.

Murea M, Hsu FC, Cox AJ, Hugenschmidt CE, Xu J, Adams JN, Raffield LM, Whitlow CT, Maldjian JA, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Structural and functional assessment of the brain in European Americans with mild-to-moderate kidney disease: Diabetes Heart Study-MIND. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015;30(8):1322-1329.

Ma J, Divers J, Palmer ND, Julian BA, Israni AK, Schladt D, Pastan SO, Chattrabhuti K, Gautreaux MD, Hauptfeld V, Bray RA, Kirk AD, Brown WM, Gaston RS, Rogers J, Farney AC, Orlando G, Stratta RJ, Guan M, Palanisamy A, Reeves-Daniel AM, Bowden DW,. Deceased donor multidrug resistance protein 1 and caveolin 1 gene variants may influence allograft survival in kidney transplantation. Kidney Int. 2015;88(3):584-592.

Palmer ND, Stevens RD, Antinozzi PA, Anderson A, Bergman RN, Wagenknecht LE, Newgard CB, Bowden DW. Metabolomic profile associated with insulin resistance and conversion to diabetes in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(3):E463-E468.

Freedman BI, Smith SC, Bagwell BM, Xu J, Bowden DW, Divers J. Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) associates with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) [abstract]. Diabetes. 2015;64(Suppl 1):A157.

Keaton JM, Ng MC, Palmer N, Pankow J, Fornage M, Wilson JG, Correa A, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Rotter JI, Rich SS, Wagenknecht LE, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Genome-wide gene-gene interaction with insulin secretion loci reveals novel loci contributing to type 2 diabetes etiology in African Americans [abstract]. Diabetes. 2015;64(Suppl 1):A465.

Sajuthi S, Sharma N, McWilliams D, Chou J, Comeau M, Palmer ND, Ma L, Calles J, Demons J, Rogers S, Beal J, Menon L, Kouba E, Davis D, Byers J, Burris M, Byerly SJ, Easter L, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Das SK. eQTL analysis of adipose and muscle in African Americans identifies genetic regulators for type 2 diabetes and obesity-associated genes [abstract]. Diabetes. 2015;64(Suppl 1):A82.

Sharma NK, Sajuthi S, Chou J, Ma L, Calles J, Demons J, Rogers S, McWilliams D, Beal J, Comeau M, Palmer ND, Menon L, Kouba E, Davis D, Byers J, Burris M, Byerly SJ, Easter L, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Das SK. Transcriptional profiles of adipose and muscle tissue are associated with insulin sensitivity and influenced by genetic variation in African Americans [abstract]. Diabetes. 2015;64(Suppl 1):A456.

Raffield LM, Hsu FC, Cox AJ, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in type 2 diabetes: Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2015;7():58.

Hsu FC, Raffield LM, Hugenschmidt CE, Cox A, Xu J, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Maldjian JA, Williamson JD, Bowden DW. Relationships between cognitive performance, neuroimaging and vascular disease: the DHS-MIND study. Neuroepidemiology. 2015;45(1):1-11.

Freedman BI, Divers J, Russell GB, Palmer ND, Wagenknecht LE, Smith SC, Xu J, Carr JJ, Bowden DW, Register T. Vitamin D associations with renal, bone, and cardiovascular phenotypes: African American-Diabetes Heart Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(10):3693-3701.

Whitlow CT, Sink KM, Divers J, Smith SC, Xu J, Palmer ND, Hugenschmidt CE, Williamson JD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Maldjian JA. Effects of type 2 diabetes on brain structure and cognitive function: African American-Diabetes Heart Study MIND. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015;36(9):1648-1653.

Freedman BI, Smith SC, Bagwell BM, Xu J, Bowden DW, Divers J. Electrochemical skin conductance in diabetic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2015;41(6):438-447.

Iyengar SK, Sedor JR, Freedman BI, Kao WH, Kretzler M, Keller BJ, Abboud HE, Adler SG, Best LG, Bowden DW, Burlock A, Chen YD, Cole SA, Comeau ME, Curtis JM, Divers J, Drechsler C, Duggirala R, Elston RC, Guo X, Huang H, Hoffmann MM,. Genome-wide association and trans-ethnic meta-analysis for advanced diabetic kidney disease: Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND). PLoS Genet. 2015;11(8):e1005352.

Hawkins GA, Friedman DJ, Lu L, McWilliams DR, Chou JW, Sajuthi S, Divers J, Parekh RS, Li M, Genovese G, Pollack MR, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Ma L, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD. Re-sequencing of the APOL1-APOL4 and MYH9 gene regions in African Americans does not identify additional risks for CKD progression. Am J Nephrol. 2015;42(2):99-106.

Hellwege JN, Palmer ND, Ziegler JT, Langefeld CD, Lorenzo C, Norris JM, Takamura T, Bowden DW. Genetic variants in selenoprotein P plasma 1 gene (SEPP1) are associated with fasting insulin and first phase insulin response in Hispanics. Gene. 2014;534(1):33-39.

Williams AL, Jacobs SB, Moreno-Macias H, Huerta-Chagoya A, Churchhouse C, Marquez-Luna C, Garcia-Ortiz H, Gomez-Vazquez MJ, Burtt NP, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Gonzalez-Villalpando C, Florez JC, Orozco L, Haiman CA, Tusie-Luna T, Altshuler D, Bowden DW, et al. Sequence variants in SLC16A11 are a common risk factor for type 2 diabetes in Mexico [letter]. Nature. 2014;506(7486):97-101.

Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Smith SC, Xu J, Divers J. Relationships between electrochemical skin conductance and kidney disease in Type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2014;28(1):56-60.

Palmer ND, Ng MC, Hicks PJ, Mudgal P, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Evaluation of candidate nephropathy susceptibility genes in a genome-wide association study of African American diabetic kidney disease. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e88273.

Mahajan A, Go MJ, Zhang W, Below JE,Gaulton KJ, Ferreira T, Horikoshi M, Johnson AD, NG MCY, Prokopenko I, Saleheen D, Wang XU, Zeggini E, Abecasis GR, Adair LS, Almgren P, Atalay M, Anung T, Baldassarre D, Balkau B, Bao Y. Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Nat Genet. 2014;46(3):234-244.

Register TC, Hruska KA, Divers J, Bowden DW, Palmer ND, Carr JJ, Wagenknecht LE, Hightower RC, Xu J, Smith SC, Dietzen DJ, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI. Sclerostin is positively associated with bone mineral density in men and women and negatively associated with carotid calcified atherosclerotic plaque in men from the African American-Diabetes Heart Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(1):315-321.

Divers J, Palmer ND, Lu L, Langefeld CD, Rocco MV, Hicks PJ, Murea M, Ma L, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Gene-gene interactions in APOL1-associated nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(3):587-594.

Cox AJ, Hsu FC, Ng MC, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Genetic risk score associations with cardiovascular disease and mortality in the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(4):1157-1164.

Flannick J, Thorleifsson G, Beer NL, Jacobs SB, Grarup N, Burtt NP, Mahajan A, Fuchsberger C, Atzmon G, Benediktsson R, Blangero J, Bowden DW, Brandslund I, Brosnan J, Burslem F, Chambers J, Cho YS, Christensen C, Douglas DA, Duggirala R, Dymek Z,. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A8 protect against type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2014;46(4):357-363.

Cox AJ, Azeem A, Yeboah J, Soliman EZ, Aggarwal SR, Bertoni AG, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Herrington DM, Bowden DW. Heart rate-corrected QT interval is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(5):1454-1461.

Adams JN, Raffield LM, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Ng MC, Carr JJ, Cox AJ, Bowden DW. Analysis of common and coding variants with cardiovascular disease in the diabetes heart study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014;13(1):77.

Hellwege JN, Palmer ND, Raffield LM, Ng MC, Hawkins GA, Long J, Lorenzo C, Norris JM, Ida Chen YD, Speliotes EK, Rotter JI, Langefeld CD, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW. Genome-wide family-based linkage analysis of exome chip variants and cardiometabolic risk. Genet Epidemiol. 2014;38(4):345-352.

Goodarzi MO, Langefeld CD, Xiang AH, Chen YD, Guo X, Hanley AJ, Raffel LJ, Kandeel F, Nadler JL, Buchanan TA, Norris JM, Fingerlin TE, Lorenzo C, Rewers MJ, Haffner SM, Bowden DW, Rich SS, Bergman RN, Rotter JI, Watanabe RM, Wagenknecht LE. Insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance are heritable and have strong genetic correlation in Mexican Americans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(4):1157-1164.

Cooke Bailey JN, Palmer ND, Ng MC, Bonomo JA, Hicks PJ, Hester JM, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Analysis of coding variants identified from exome sequencing resources for association with diabetic and non-diabetic nephropathy in African Americans. Hum Genet. 2014;133(6):769-779.

Halban PA, Polonsky KS, Bowden DW, Hawkins MA, Ling C, Mather KJ, Powers AC, Rhodes CJ, Sussel L, Weir GC. Beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes: postulated mechanisms and prospects for prevention and treatment. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(6):1751-1758.

Bonomo JA, Ng MC, Palmer ND, Keaton JM, Larsen CP, Hicks PJ, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. Coding variants in nephrin (NPHS1) and susceptibility to nephropathy in African Americans. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(8):1434-1440.

Cox AJ, Hugenschmidt CE, Raffield LM, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Williamson JD, Hsu FC, Bowden DW. Heritability and genetic association analysis of cognition in the Diabetes Heart Study. Neurobiol Aging. 2014;35(8):1958e3-e12.

Bonomo JA, Palmer ND, Hicks PJ, Lea JP, Okusa MD, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI. Complement factor H gene associations with end-stage kidney disease in African Americans. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(7):1409-1414.

Bonomo JA, Guan M, Ng MC, Palmer ND, Hicks PJ, Keaton JM, Lea JP, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW. The ras responsive transcription factor RREB1 is a novel candidate gene for type 2 diabetes associated end-stage kidney disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23(24):6441-6447.

Cox AJ, Hsu FC, Freedman BI, Herrington DM, Criqui MH, Carr JJ, Bowden DW. Contributors to mortality in high-risk diabetic patients in the Diabetes Heart Study. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(10):2798-2803.

Halban PA, Polonsky KS, Bowden DW, Hawkins MA, Ling C, Mather KJ, Powers AC, Rhodes CJ, Sussel L, Weir GC. Beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes: postulated mechanisms and prospects for prevention and treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(6):1983-1992.

Raffield LM, Agarwal S, Cox AJ, Hsu FC, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Xu J, Bowden DW, Vitolins MZ. Cross-sectional analysis of calcium intake for associations with vascular calcification and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(4):1029-1035.

Ng MC, Shriner D, Chen BH, Li J, Chen WM, Guo X, Liu J, Bielinski SJ, Yanek LR, Nalls MA, Comeau ME, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Jensen RA, Evans DS, Sun YV, An P, Patel SR, Lu Y, Long J, Armstrong LL, Wagenknecht L, Yang L, Snively BM, Palmer ND, Mudgal P,. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes. PLoS Genet. 2014;18(8):e1004517.

Keaton JM, Cooke Bailey JN, Palmer ND, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Ng MC, Bowden DW. A comparison of type 2 diabetes risk allele load between African Americans and European Americans. Hum Genet. 2014;133(12):1487-1495.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

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