Profile

George J. Christ, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

George J. Christ, Ph.D.

Professor,





Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-7296 | Department: 336-716-2011

Email: gchrist@wakehealth.edu

Education & Training

  • B.S., Muhlenberg College , 1982
  • Ph.D., Wake Forest University , 1987
  • Fellowship, Albert Einstein College of Med, 1989
George J. Christ, Ph.D.

George J. Christ, Ph.D.

Professor, Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Sticht Center on Aging
WFU Primate Center
Physiology & Pharmacology
Urology
Translational Science Institute

Research Interests

biotechnology, cell growth, differentiation,d, cross(mult/tnslat/inter)discip, drugs/therapeutic agents pharm, education/training (all f, t,, engineering/bioengineering, growth & development, immunology/allergy/inflammatio

Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-7296 | Department: 336-716-2011

Email: gchrist@wakehealth.edu

Recent Publications


Zarifpour M, Sandberg J, Abolbashari M, Vadhavkar M, Kelkar S, Mohs A, Marini F, Andersson KE, Christ G. Characterization of functional bladder regeneration in mice [abstract]. Neurourol Urodyn. 2014;33(2):186.

Criswell TL, Corona BT, Wang Z, Zhou Y, Niu G, Xu Y, Christ GJ, Soker S. The role of endothelial cells in myofiber differentiation and the vascularization and innervation of bioengineered muscle tissue in vivo. Biomaterials. 2013;34(1):140-149.

Liu C, Zhao WX, Christ GJ, Kim-Shapiro DB. Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles [abstract]. Nitric Oxide. 2013;31(Suppl 1):S19.

Christ GJ, Saul JM, Furth ME, Andersson KE. The pharmacology of regenerative medicine. Pharmacol Rev. 2013;65(3):1091-1133.

Zhao W, Ju YM, Christ G, Atala A, Yoo JJ, Lee SJ. Diaphragmatic muscle reconstruction with an aligned electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/collagen hybrid scaffold. Biomaterials. 2013;34(33):8235-8240.

Ward CL, Corona BT, Yoo JJ, Harrison BS, Christ GJ. Oxygen generating biomaterials preserve skeletal muscle homeostasis under hypoxic and ischemic conditions. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e72485.

Burmeister DM, AbouShwareb T, Bergman CR, Andersson KE, Christ GJ. Age-related alterations in regeneration of the urinary bladder after subtotal cystectomy. Am J Pathol. 2013;183(5):1585-1595.

Helms CC, Marvel M, Zhao W, Stahle M, Vest R, Kato GJ, Lee JS, Christ G, Gladwin MT, Hantgan RR, Kim-Shapiro DB. Mechanisms of hemolysis-associated platelet activation. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11(12):2148-2154.

Liu C, Zhao W, Christ GJ, Gladwin MT, Kim-Shapiro DB. Nitric oxide scavenging by red cell microparticles. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;65():1164-1173.

Criswell TL, Corona BT, Ward CL, Miller M, Patel M, Wang Z, Christ GJ, Soker S. Compression-induced muscle injury in rats that mimics compartment syndrome in humans. Am J Pathol. 2012;180(2):787-797.


Orlando G, Wood KJ, De Coppi P, Baptista PM, Binder KW, Bitar KN, Breuer C, Burnett L, Christ G, Farney A, Figliuzzi M, Holmes JH IV, Koch K, Macchiarini P, Mirmalek Sani S-H, Opara E, Remuzzi A, Rogers J, Saul JM, Seliktar D,. Regenerative medicine as applied to general surgery. Ann Surg. 2012;255(5):867-880.

Melman A, Davies KP, Edwardes MD, Christ GJ. Long-term results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study evaluating the safety and potential activity of escalating doses of hMaxi-K gene transfer in female participants with overactive bladder and detrusor overactivity [abstract]. Mol Ther. 2012;20(Suppl 1):S16.

Burmeister D, AbouShwareb T, D'Agostino R Jr, Andersson K-E, Christ GJ. Impact of partial urethral obstruction on bladder function: time-dependent changes and functional correlates of altered expression of Ca2+ signaling regulators. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302(12):F1517-28.

Corona BT, Machingal MA, Criswell T, Vadhavkar M, Dannahower AC, Bergman C, Zhao W, Christ GJ. Further development of a tissue engineered muscle repair construct in vitro for enhanced functional recovery following implantation in vivo in a murine model of volumetric muscle loss injury. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18(11):1213-1228.

Tillman BW, Yazdani SK, Neff LP, Corriere MA, Christ GJ, Soker S, Atala A, Geary RL, Yoo JJ. Bioengineered vascular access maintains structural integrity in response to arteriovenous flow and repeated needle puncture. J Vasc Surg. 2012;56(3):783-793.


Burmeister D, Peyton C, Aboushwareb T, Bergman C, Andersson K-E, Christ G. Age-dependent impairments in rat bladder regeneration [abstract]. FASEB J. 2012;26(Meeting Abstracts Suppl):198.3.

Liu C, Zhao WX, Christ GJ, Kim-Shapiro DB. Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles [abstract]. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53(Suppl 2):S182.

Yoo JJ, Atala A, Christ GJ, inventors; Wake Forest University Health Sciences, assignee. Bioreactor system and method of enhancing functionality of muscle culture in vitro. European patent office EP 1,902,127. 2012 Aug 29. 2012;():.

Van Dyke ME, Christ GJ, Whitlock PW, inventors; Wake Forest University Health Sciences, assignee. Structurally modified acellular tissue engineering scaffolds & methods of production. United States patent US 8,221,777. 2012 July 17. 2012;():.

Machingal MA, Yazdani SK, Christ GJ. Engineering of large diameter vessels In: Atala A, Lanza R, Thomson JA, Nerem R, eds. Principles of regenerative medicine. 2nd ed. San Diego (CA): Academic Press;2011: 833-852.


Neff LP, Tillman BW, Yazdani SK, Machingal MA, Yoo JJ, Soker S, Bernish BW, Geary RL, Christ GJ. Vascular smooth muscle enhances functionality of tissue-engineered blood vessels in vivo. J Vasc Surg. 2011;53(2):426-434.

Kanika ND, Chang J, Tong Y, Tiplitsky S, Lin J, Yohannes E, Tar M, Chance M, Christ GJ, Melman A, et al. Oxidative stress status accompanying diabetic bladder cystopathy results in the activation of protein degradation pathways. BJU Int. 2011;107(10):1676-1684.

Christ GJ, Chen AF. The grand challenge for integrative and regenerative pharmacology. Front Pharmacol. 2011;2():article 5.

Machingal MA, Corona BT, Walters TJ, Kesireddy V, Koval CN, Dannahower A, Zhao W, Yoo JJ, Christ GJ. A tissue-engineered muscle repair construct for functional restoration of an irrecoverable muscle injury in a murine model. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011;17(17-18):2291-2303.


Christ GJ, Melman A, Williams K, Aboushwareb T, Zhao WX, Kaplan J, Anderson K-E [sic] [Andersson K-E]. Nonhuman primates as a model for translational research on atherosclerosis-related vascular disease and erectile dysfunction [abstract]. J Sex Med. 2010;7(Suppl 1):46.

Fullhase C, Soler R, Gratzke C, Brodsky M, Christ GJ, Andersson K-E. Urodynamic evaluation of fesoterodine metabolite, doxazosin and their combination in a rat model of partial urethral obstruction. BJU Int. 2010;106(2):287-293.

Zhao W, Aboushwareb T, Turner C, Mathis C, Bennett C, Sonntag WE, Andersson K-E, Christ G. Impaired bladder function in aging male rats. J Urol. 2010;184(1):378-385.

Fullhase C, Soler R, Gratzke C, Brodsky M, Christ GJ, Andersson K-E. Spinal effects of the fesoterodine metabolite 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine and/or doxazosin in rats with or without partial urethral obstruction. J Urol. 2010;184(2):783-789.

Burmeister D, AbouShwareb T, Tan J, Link K, Andersson K-E, Christ G. Early stages of in situ bladder regeneration in a rodent model. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010;16(8):2541-2551.

Corona BT, Ward CL, Harrison BS, Christ GJ. Regenerative medicine: basic concepts, current status, and future applications. J Investig Med. 2010;58(7):849-858.

Neff LP, Tillman B, Yazadani S, Machinga M, Yoo J, Soker S, Bernishi B, Geary R, Christ G. Vascular smooth muscle enhances functionality of tissue engineered blood vessels in vivo [abstract]. J Vasc Surg. 2010;51(Suppl):4S.

Burnett AL, Goldstein I, Andersson KE, Argiolas A, Christ G, Park K, Xin ZC. Future sexual medicine physiological treatment targets. J Sex Med. 2010;7(10):3269-3304.

Gratzke C, Streng T, Park A, Christ G, Stief CG, Hedlund P, Andersson K-E. Distribution and function of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 in the rat, monkey and human bladder. J Urol. 2009;181(4):1939-1948.

Goldstein AS, Christ G. Functional tissue engineering requires bioreactor strategies [preface]. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009;15(4):739-740.


Christ GJ. Bladder tissue regeneration [editorial]. J Urol. 2009;182(1):16-17.

Zhao W, Sato Y, Melman A, Andersson KE, Christ G. Metrics for evaluation of age-related changes in erectile capacity in a rodent model. J Sex Med. 2009;6(7):1885-1892.

Markert CD, Atala A, Cann JK, Christ G, Furth M, Ambrosio F, Childers MK. Mesenchymal stem cells: emerging therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PM R. 2009;1(6):547-559.

Aboushwareb T, Zhou G, Deng F-M, Turner C, Andersson K-E, Tar M, Zhao W, D'Agostino R Jr, Sun T-T, Christ GJ, et al. Alterations in bladder function associated with urothelial defects in uroplakin II and IIIa knockout mice. Neurourol Urodyn. 2009;28(8):1028-1033.

Furth ME, Christ GJ. Regenerative pharmacology for diabetes mellitus. Mol Interv. 2009;9(4):171-174.

Burmeister D, AbouShwareb T, Andersson K, Christ G. Establishing a rodent model for characterization of natural in vivo bladder regeneration [abstract]. Neurourol Urodyn. 2009;28(7):739-741.

Schlatzer DM, Dazard JE, Dharsee M, Ewing RM, Ilchenko S, Stewart I, Christ G, Chance MR. Urinary protein profiles in a rat model for diabetic complications. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8(9):2145-2158.

Zhao W, Brink P, Christ G. Altered camp-mediated potassium channel currents in detrusor myocytes from diabetic rats [abstract]. Neurourol Urodyn. 2009;28(7):744-745.

Christ GJ, Andersson K-E, Williams K, Zhao W, D'Agostino R Jr, Kaplan J, Aboushwareb T, Yoo J, Calenda G, Davies KP, et al. Smooth-muscle-specific gene transfer with the human Maxi-K channel improves erectile function and enhances sexual behavior in atherosclerotic cynomolgus monkeys. Eur Urol. 2009;56(6):1055-1066.

Melman A, Rojas L, Christ G. Gene transfer for erectile dysfunction: will this novel therapy be accepted by urologists?. Curr Opin Urol. 2009;19(6):595-600.


Yazdani SK, Christ GJ. Engineering of large diameter vessels In: Atala A, Lanza R, Thomson JA, Nerem RM, eds. Principles of regenerative medicine. Boston (MA): Academic Press;2008: 978-999.

Aboushwareb T, Burmeister D, Andersson KE, Christ GJ. Novel longitudinal studies of rat bladder regeneration [abstract]. Eur Urol Suppl. 2008;7(3):266.

Christ GJ, Andersson K-E, Williams K, Zhao W, D'Agostino R, Kaplan J, Aboushwareb T, Yoo J, Davies K, Melman A. MAXI-K gene transfer with a smooth muscle specific promoter enhances erectile function and sexual behaviour in atherosclerotic cynomolgous monkeys [abstract]. Eur Urol. 2008;7(3 Suppl):143.

Gratzke C, Christ GJ, Kaplan JR, Stief CG, Andersson KE, Badlani G. Chronic soy and phytoestrogen treatment leads to significant functional and morphological changes in the urethra of oophorectomized female non-human primates [abstract]. Eur Urol. 2008;7(3 Suppl):315.

Gratzke C, Christ GJ, Kaplan JR, Andersson K-E, Badlani G. Chronic soy and phytoestrogen treatment leads to significant functional and morphological changes in the urethra of female non-human primates [abstract]. Neurourol Urodyn. 2008;27(2):106.

Hodges SJ, Zhou G, Deng F-M, Aboushwareb T, Turner C, Andersson K-E, Santago P, Case D, Sun T-T, Christ GJ. Voiding pattern analysis as a surrogate for cystometric evaluation in uroplakin II knockout mice. J Urol. 2008;179(5):2046-2051.

Melman A, Biggs G, Davies K, Zhao W, Tar MT, Christ GJ. Gene transfer with a vector expressing Maxi-K from a smooth muscle-specific promoter restores erectile function in the aging rat. Gene Ther. 2008;15(5):364-370.

Zhao W, Machigal M, Turner C, Davies K, Melman A, Andersson KE, Christ GJ. Threshold gene transfer with hSlo enhances sildenafil-induced erectile responses in 2-month streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats [abstract]. Eur Urol. 2008;7(3 Suppl):217.

Moon DG, Christ G, Stitzel JD, Atala A, Yoo JJ. Cyclic mechanical preconditioning improves engineered muscle contraction. Tissue Eng Part A. 2008;14(4):473-482.


Christ GJ. Engineering muscularized vascular conduits [abstract]. Tissue Eng Part A. 2008;14(5):848.

Yazdani SK, Watts B, Machingal M, Jarajapu YPR, Van Dyke ME, Christ GJ. Smooth muscle cell seeding of decellularized scaffolds: further development toward a more native architecture for tissue engineered blood vessels [abstract]. Tissue Eng Part A. 2008;14(5):778.

Yohannes E, Chang J, Christ GJ, Davies KP, Chance MR. Proteomics analysis identifies molecular targets related to diabetes mellitus-associated bladder dysfunction. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7(7):1270-1285.

Gratzke C, Jarajapu YPR, Christ GJ, Kaplan JR, Williams JK, Andersson K-E, Badlani G. Effects of long-term dietary soy treatment on female urethral morphology and function in ovariectomized nonhuman primates. J Urol. 2008;180(5):2247-2253.

Hipp JD, Davies KP, Tar M, Valcic M, Knoll A, Melman A, Christ GJ. Using gene chips to identify organ-specific, smooth muscle responses to experimental diabetes: potential applications to urological diseases. BJU Int. 2007;99(2):418-430.


Melman A, Bar-Chama N, McCullough A, Davies K, Christ G. Plasmid-based gene transfer for treatment of erectile dysfunction and overactive bladder: results of a phase I trial. Isr Med Assoc J. 2007;9(3):143-146.

Aboushwareb T, Jarajapu YPR, Blaha S, Hodges S, Turner C, Zhao W, Andersson K-E, Christ GJ. Mechanistic studies of detrusor over activity in male rats following partial urethral obstruction: implications to identification of novel therapeutics [abstract]. FASEB J. 2007;21(6):A1356.

Aboushwareb T, Zho G, Turner C, Andersson K-E, Tar M, Melman A, Deng F-M, Sun T-T, Christ GJ. Urodynamic characterization of mice lacking uroplakin II or III [abstract]. FASEB J. 2007;21(6):A1308.

Aboushwareb T, Andersson K-E, Christ GJ. Pharmacological studies of AGI-1140 in a rat model of erectile dysfunction [abstract]. FASEB J. 2007;21(6):A1159-1160.

Andersson KE, Christ GJ. Regenerative pharmacology: the future is now. Mol Interv. 2007;7(2):79-86.

Hodges S, Zhou G, Deng F-M, Abouschwareb T, Turner C, Andersson K-E, Santago P, Sun H, Christ GJ. Voiding patterns in uroplakin II knockout mice [abstract]. FASEB J. 2007;21(6):A1301.

Jarajapu YPR, Christ GJ, Knot HJ. Intravascular pressure causes novel synchronous intercellular Ca2+ oscillations in rat cerebral arteries [abstract]. FASEB J. 2007;21(6):A1157.

Yazdani SK, Machingal M, Watts B, Jarajapu YPR, Van Dyke ME, Christ GJ. Smooth muscle seeded natural collagen scaffolds for tissue engineered blood vessels [abstract]. FASEB J. 2007;21(5):A81.

Zhao W, Machingal M, Turner C, Davies K, Andersson K-E, Melman A, Christ GJ. Threshold gene transfer with hSlo enhances sildenafil-induced erectile responses in 2 month streptozotocin(STZ)-diabetic rats [abstract]. FASEB J. 2007;21(5):A420.

Delo D, Neshat S, Christ G, Groban L, Olson J, Zhu J-M, Atala A, Soker S. Amniotic fluid derived stem cells for cardiac therapeutics [abstract]. FASEB J. 2007;21(5):A229.

Zare S, Christ G, Moon DG, Zhao W, Atala A, Yoo JJ. Functional enhancement of bioreactor assisted engineered skeletal muscle [abstract]. FASEB J. 2007;21(5):A135.

Zhao W, Brink PR, Christ GJ. Diabetes-related alterations in cAMP-mediated potassium channel currents in short term cultures of detrusor myocytes [abstract]. FASEB J. 2007;21(6):A829.

Zotova EG, Christ GJ, Zhao W, Tar M, Kuppam SD, Arezzo JC. Effects of fidarestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, on nerve conduction velocity and bladder function in streptozotocin-treated female rats. J Diabetes Complications. 2007;21(3):187-195.

Moon DG, Christ GJ, Stitzel J, Yoo JJ, Atala A. Tissue bioreactor system for the creation and maturation of organized functional tissues for surgical reconstruction [abstract]. J Urol. 2007;177(4 Suppl):58-59.

Aboushwareb TA, Zhou G, Turner C, Andersson KE, Tar M, Melman A, Deng FM, Sun TT, Christ GJ. Urodynamic studies in uroplakin II or III knockout (KO) mice [abstract]. J Urol. 2007;177(4 Suppl):88.

Rodriguez S, Chen KL, Christ GJ, Yoo JJ, Atala A. Progenitor cell-derived endothelial cell therapy restores diabetes associated erectile dysfunction [abstract]. J Urol. 2007;177(4 Suppl):264.

Christ GJ, Andersson KE. Rho-kinase and effects of Rho-kinase inhibition on the lower urinary tract. Neurourol Urodyn. 2007;26(Suppl 6):948-954.

Yazdani SK, Jarajapu YPR, Machinga M [sic] [Machingal M], Watts B, Van Dyke ME, Christ GJ. Bioreactor protocols for improved cellular penetration of decellularized scaffolds [abstract]. Tissue Eng. 2007;13(7):1645.

Yazdani SK, Jarajapu YPR, Machingal M, Watts B, Van Dyke ME, Christ GJ. Development of tissue engineered blood vessels with a functional medial muscle layer [abstract]. Tissue Eng. 2007;13(7):1673.

Zare S, Christ G, Moon DG, Zhao W, Atala A, Yoo JJ. Functional enhancement of bioreactor assisted engineered skeletal muscle [abstract]. Tissue Eng. 2007;13(7):1698.

Moon DG, Tillman B, Christ G, Stitzel J, Yoo J, Atala A. Tissue bioreactor system for the creation and maturation of organized functional tissues for surgical reconstruction [abstract]. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;205(3 Suppl):S104.

Davies KP, Zhao W, Tar M, Figueroa JC, Desai P, Verselis VK, Kronengold J, Wang H-Z, Melman A, Christ GJ. Diabetes-induced changes in the alternative splicing of the Slo gene in corporal tissue. Eur Urol. 2007;52(4):1229-1237.

Tong Y, Tar M, Davelman F, Christ G, Melman A, Davies KP. Variable coding sequence protein A1 as a marker for erectile dysfunction. BJU Int. 2006;98(2):396-401.

Wang H-Z, Brink PR, Christ GJ. Gap junction channel activity in short-term cultured human detrusor myocyte cell pairs: gating and unitary conductances. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;291(6):C1366-1376.

Delo D, Neshat-Vahid S, Olson J, Zhu JM, Christ G, Atala A. Amniotic fluid derived stem cells for cardiac therapeutics [abstract]. Circulation. 2006;114(18 Suppl):197-198.

Neshat-Vahid S, Delo D, Milanesi A, Christ G, Atala A, Soker S. Amniotic fluid derived stem cells for cardiac therapeutics [abstract]. Eur Heart J. 2006;27(Suppl 1):19-20.


Melman A, Bar-Chama N, McCullough AR, Davies K, Christ GJ. Results of the first human trial for genetransfer therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction [abstract]. J Urol. 2006;175(4 Suppl):222.

Lowe D, Tar M, Du Hoffmann J, Christ GJ, Davies K, Melman A. Efficacy of weekly administration of hSlo (hMaxi-K) gene transfer for treatment of erectile dysfunction in aging rats [abstract]. J Urol. 2006;175(4 Suppl):223.

Melman A, Bar-chama N, McCullough A, Davies K, Christ G. hMaxi-K gene transfer in males with erectile dysfunction: results of the first human trial. Hum Gene Ther. 2006;17(12):1165-1176.

All Publications

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