Mark A. Espeland, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Education & Training

  • B.S., Arizona State University-Tempe Campps, 1974
  • Ph.D., University of Rochester, 1981
  • M.A., University of Rochester, 1981


  • Am Assn Of Advancement Of Scie
  • Am Diabetes Assn
  • Am Statistical Assn
  • American Academy of Neurology
  • Biometric Society
  • Soc Clin Trials
Mark A. Espeland, Ph.D.

Mark A. Espeland, Ph.D.

Professor, Biostatistical Sciences
Center for Comparative Medicine Research
Center for Diabetes Research
Center for Integrative Medicine
Sticht Center on Aging
Center on Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism

Research Interests

aging, alzheimer's disease, cognition/learning, diabetes, environmental sciences, epidemiology, fitness/physical, nutrition, obesity, prevention, statistics/mathematics, women's health issues

Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-2826 | Department: 336-716-2011


Recent Publications

Espeland MA, Beavers KM, Gibbs BB, Johnson KC, Hughes TM, Baker LD, Jakicic J, Korytkowski M, Miller M, Bray GA. Ankle-brachial index and inter-artery blood pressure differences as predictors of cognitive function in overweight and obese older adults with diabetes: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes movement and memory study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;30(10):999-1007.

Espeland MA, Probstfield J, Hire D, Redmon JB, Evans GW, Coday M, Lewis CE, Johnson KC, Wilmoth S, Bahnson J, Dulin MF, Green JB, Knowler WC, Kitabchi A, Murillo AL, Osei K, Rehman SU, Cushman WC, Ambrosius WT, Greven CM, Lovato JF, Perdue LH, et al. Systolic blood pressure control among individuals with type 2 diabetes: a comparative effectiveness analysis of three interventions. Am J Hypertens. 2015;28(8):995-1009.

Marx N, Rosenstock J, Kahn SE, Zinman B, Kastelein JJ, Lachin JM, Espeland MA, Bluhmki E, Mattheus M, Ryckaert B, Patel S, Johansen OE, Woerle HJ. Design and baseline characteristics of the CARdiovascular Outcome Trial of LINAgliptin Versus Glimepiride in Type 2 Diabetes (CAROLINA). Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2015;12(3):164-174.

Belalcazar LM, Lang W, Haffner SM, Schwenke DC, Kriska A, Balasubramanyam A, Hoogeveen RC, Pi-Sunyer FX, Tracy RP, Ballantyne CM, Espeland MA, et al. Improving adiponectin levels in individuals with diabetes and obesity: insights from Look AHEAD. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(8):1544-1550.

Beavers DP, Pettinger M, Espeland MA, Snively BM, Leng X, Hunt JR, Tindle HA, Shumaker SA. The evolution of the WHI 80+ cohort. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015;():.

Chen JC, Wang X, Wellenius GA, Serre ML, Driscoll I, Casanova R, McArdle JJ, Manson JE, Chui HC, Espeland MA. Ambient air pollution and neurotoxicity on brain structure: evidence from Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Ann Neurol. 2015;78(3):466-476.

Vaughan L, Bushnell C, Bell CL, Espeland MA. Global cognitive function before, surrounding, and after ischemic stroke: the role of risk and protective factors varies with time among ischemic stroke survivors. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2015;():.

Wing RR, Tate D, LaRose JG, Gorin AA, Erickson K, Robichaud EF, Perdue L, Bahnson J, Espeland MA.. Frequent self-weighing as part of a constellation of healthy weight control practices in young adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015;23(5):943-949.

Espeland MA, Brinton RD, Manson JE, Yaffe K, Hugenschmidt C, Vaughan L, Craft S, Edwards BJ, Casanova R, Masaki K, Resnick SM. Postmenopausal hormone therapy, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and brain volumes. Neurology. 2015;85(13):1131-1138.

Chen JC, Espeland MA, Brunner RL, Lovato LC, Wallace RB, Leng X, Phillips LS, Robinson JG, Kotchen JM, Johnson KC, Manson JE, Stefanick ML, Sarto GE, Mysiw WJ. Sleep duration, cognitive decline, and dementia risk in older women. Alzheimers Dement. 2015;():.

White DK, Neogi T, Rejeski WJ, Walkup MP, Lewis CE, Nevitt MC, Foy CG, Felson DT, Espeland MA. Can an intensive diet and exercise program prevent knee pain among overweight adults at high risk. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2015;67(7):965-971.

Unick JL, Neiberg RH, Hogan PE, Cheskin LJ, Dutton GR, Jeffery R, Nelson JA, Pi-Sunyer X, West DS, Wing RR, Espeland MA. Weight change in the first 2 months of a lifestyle intervention predicts weight changes 8 years later. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015;23(7):1353-1356.

Papandonatos GD, Pan Q, Pajewski NM, Delahanty LM, Peter I, Erar B, Ahmad S, Harden M, Chen L, Fontanillas P, Wagenknecht LE, Kahn SE, Wing RR, Jablonski KA, Huggins GS, Knowler WC, Florez JC, McCaffery JM, Franks PW, Espeland MA, et al. Genetic predisposition to weight loss & regain with lifestyle intervention: analyses from the Diabetes Prevention Program & the Look AHEAD randomized controlled trials. Diabetes. 2015;():.

Espeland MA, Newman AB, Sink K, Gill TM, King AC, Miller ME, Guralnik J, Katula J, Church T, Manini T, Reid KF, McDermott MM. Associations between ankle-brachial index and cognitive function: results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015;16(8):682-689.

McCaffery JM, Anderson A, Bantle JP, Berkowitz RI, Bray GA, Cheskin L, Clark JM, Curtis JM, Delahanty LM, Evans M, Foreyt JP, Glasser S, Gregg EW, Hanson RL, Hazuda HP, Hill JO, Horton ES, Huggins GS, Jakicic JM, Jeffery RW, Johnson KC,. Prospective association of a genetic risk score and lifestyle intervention with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Look AHEAD randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2015;58(8):1803-1813.

Sink KM, Espeland MA, Castro CM, Church T, Cohen R, Dodson JA, Guralnik J, Hendrie HC, Jennings J, Katula J, Lopez OL, McDermott MM, Pahor M, Reid KF, Rushing J, Verghese J, Rapp S, Williamson JD. Effect of a 24-month physical activity intervention vs health education on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults: the LIFE randomized trial. JAMA. 2015;314(8):781-790.

Alonso A, Bahnson JL, Gaussoin SA, Bertoni AG, Johnson KC, Lewis CE, Vetter M, Mantzoros CS, Jeffery RW, Soliman EZ. Effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention on atrial fibrillation risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Look AHEAD randomized trial. Am Heart J. 2015;170(4):770-777.e5.

Coker LH, Espeland MA, Hogan PE, Resnick SM, Bryan RN, Robinson JG, Goveas JS, Davatzikos C, Kuller LH, Williamson JD, Bushnell CD, Shumaker SA. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies: the WHIMS-MRI studies. Neurology. 2014;82(5):427-434.

Klepin HD, Geiger AM, Bandos H, Costantino JP, Rapp SR, Sink KM, Lawrence JA, Atkinson HH, Espeland MA. Cognitive factors associated with adherence to oral antiestrogen therapy: results from the cognition in the study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (Co-STAR) study. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2014;7(1):161-168.

Pottala JV, Yaffe K, Robinson JG, Espeland MA, Wallace R, Harris WS. Higher RBC EPA + DHA corresponds with larger total brain and hippocampal volumes: WHIMS-MRI Study. Neurology. 2014;82(5):435-442.

Fitzpatrick SL, Jeffery R, Johnson KC, Roche CC, Van Dorsten B, Gee M, Dotson K, Walkup MP, Espeland MA, Bahnson JL, Wagenknecht LE, Reboussin D, Rejeski WJ, Bertoni AG, Lang W, Lawlor MS, Lefkowitz D, Miller GD, Reynolds PS, Ribisl PM,. Baseline predictors of missed visits in the Look AHEAD study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(1):131-140.

Espeland MA, Lewis CE, Bahnson J, Knowler WC, Regensteiner JG, Gaussoin SA, Beavers D, Johnson KC. Impact of weight loss on ankle-brachial index and interartery blood pressures. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(4):1032-1041.

Wing RR, Leahey T, Jeffery R, Johnson KC, Hill JO, Coday M, Espeland MA. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(3):638-644.

Yoneyama S, Guo Y, Lanktree MB, Barnes MR, Elbers CC, Karczewski KJ, Padmanabhan S, Bauer F, Baumert J, Beitelshees A, Berenson GS, Boer JM, Burke G, Cade B, Chen W, Cooper-Dehoff RM, Gaunt TR, Gieger C, Gong Y, Gorski M, Heard-Costa N,. Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23(9):2498-2510.

Espeland MA, Rapp SR, Bray GA, Houston DK, Johnson KC, Kitabchi AE, Hergenroeder AL, Williamson J, Jakicic JM, van Dorsten B, Kritchevsky SB. Long-term impact of behavioral weight loss intervention on cognitive function. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(9):1101-1108.

Pahor M, Guralnik JM, Ambrosius WT, Blair S, Bonds DE, Church TS, Espeland MA, Fielding RA, Gill TM, Groessl EJ, King AC, Kritchevsky SB, Manini TM, McDermott MM, Miller ME, Newman AB, Rejeski WJ, Sink KM, Williamson JD. Effect of structured physical activity on prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: the LIFE study randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311(23):2387-2396.

Davenport EM, Whitlow CT, Urban JE, Espeland MA, Jung Y, Rosenbaum DA, Gioia G, Powers AK, Stitzel JD, Maldjian JA. Abnormal white matter integrity related to head impact exposure in a season of high school varsity football. J Neurotrauma. 2014;31(19):1617-1624.

Breyer BN, Phelan S, Hogan PE, Rosen RC, Kitabchi AE, Wing RR, Brown JS, Espeland M. Intensive lifestyle intervention reduces urinary incontinence in overweight/obese men with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD trial. J Urol. 2014;192(1):144-149.

Goveas JS, Espeland MA, Hogan PE, Tindle HA, Shih RA, Kotchen JM, Robinson JG, Barnes DE, Resnick SM. Depressive symptoms and longitudinal changes in cognition: Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2014;27(2):94-102.

Pottala JV, Djira GD, Espeland MA, Ye J, Larson MG, Harris WS. Structural equation modeling for analyzing erythrocyte fatty acids in Framingham. Comput Math Methods Med. 2014;():160520.

Persons JE, Robinson JG, Ammann EM, Coryell WH, Espeland MA, Harris WS, Manson JE, Fiedorowicz JG. Omega-3 fatty acid biomarkers and subsequent depressive symptoms. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2014;29(7):747-757.

Lipkin EW, Schwartz AV, Anderson AM, Davis C, Johnson KC, Gregg EW, Bray GA, Berkowitz R, Peters AL, Hodges A, Lewis C, Kahn SE, Espeland M. The Look AHEAD Trial: bone loss at four-year follow-up in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(10):2822-2829.

Unick JL, Hogan PE, Neiberg RH, Cheskin LJ, Dutton GR, Evans-Hudnall G, Jeffery R, Kitabchi AE, Nelson JA, Pi-Sunyer FX, West DS, Wing RR, Espeland M. Evaluation of early weight loss thresholds for identifying nonresponders to an intensive lifestyle intervention. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(7):1608-1616.

Espeland MA, Glick HA, Bertoni A, Brancati FL, Bray GA, Clark JM, Curtis JM, Egan C, Evans M, Foreyt JP, Ghazarian S, Gregg EW, Hazuda HP, Hill JO, Hire D, Horton ES, Hubbard VS, Jakicic JM, Jeffery RW, Johnson KC, Kahn SE, Killean T,. Impact of an intensive lifestyle intervention on use and cost of medical services among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: the action for health in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(9):2548-2556.

Wing RR, Leahey T, Espeland M. Response to 'clustering effects in group-based behavioral weight loss trials' [letter]. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22(8):1771.

Sink KM, Espeland MA, Rushing J, Castro CM, Church TS, Cohen R, Gill TM, Henkin L, Jennings JM, Kerwin DR, Manini TM, Myers V, Pahor M, Reid KF, Woolard N, Rapp SR, Williamson JD. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics. Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9():1425-1436.

Tate DF, LaRose JG, Griffin LP, Erickson KE, Robichaud EF, Perdue L, Espeland MA, Wing RR. Recruitment of young adults into a randomized controlled trial of weight gain prevention: message development, methods, and cost. Trials. 2014;15():326.

Vaughan L, Erickson KI, Espeland MA, Smith JC, Tindle HA, Rapp SR. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and brain volume in older adult women. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2014;69(6):826-836.

Belalcazar LM, Anderson AM, Lang W, Schwenke DC, Haffner SM, Yatsuya H, Rushing J, Vitolins MZ, Reeves R, Pi-Sunyer FX, Tracy RP, Ballantyne CM, Espeland M, et al. Fiber intake and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in type 2 diabetes: Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial findings at baseline and year 1. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(11):1800-1810.

Unick JL, Gaussoin S, Bahnson J, Crow R, Curtis J, Killean T, Regensteiner JG, Stewart KJ, Wing RR, Jakicic JM, Espeland MA, et al. Validity of ratings of perceived exertion in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Nov Physiother Phys Rehabil. 2014;1(1):.

Driscoll I, Snively BM, Espeland MA, Shumaker SA, Rapp SR, Goveas JS, Casanova R, Wactawski-Wende J, Manson JE, Rossom RC, Brooks J, Hernandez DG, Singleton AB, Resnick SM. A candidate gene study of genetic risk for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in women aged greater than 65 years: results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) [abstract]. Alzheimers Dement. 2014;10(4 Suppl):P787-P788.

Espeland MA, Katula JA, Rushing J, Kramer AF, Jennings JM, Sink KM, Nadkarni NK, Reid KF, Castro CM, Church T, Kerwin DR, Williamson JD, Marottoli RA, Rushing S, Marsiske M, Rapp SR. Performance of a computer-based assessment of cognitive function measures in two cohorts of seniors. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;28(12):1239-1250.

Casanova R, Hsu FC, Sink KM, Rapp SR, Williamson JD, Resnick SM, Espeland MA. Alzheimer's disease risk assessment using large-scale machine learning methods. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e77949.

Espeland MA, Shumaker SA, Leng I, Manson JE, Brown CM, LeBlanc ES, Vaughan L, Robinson J, Rapp SR, Goveas JS, Wactawski-Wende J, Stefanick ML, Li W, Resnick SM. Long-term effects on cognitive function of postmenopausal hormone therapy prescribed to women aged 50 to 55 years. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(15):1429-1436.

Vaughan L, Leng I, Dagenbach D, Resnick SM, Rapp SR, Jennings JM, Brunner RL, Simpson SL, Beavers DP, Coker LH, Gaussoin SA, Sink KM, Espeland MA. Intraindividual variability in domain-specific cognition and risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2013;():495793.

Sink KM, Corbett M, Dugan E, Espeland MA, Hogan P, Rapp S, Vaughan L, Shumaker SA. (CNS) prevalence and predictors of driving among cognitively impaired older adults: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-epidemiology of cognitive health outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO) [abstract]. Gerontologist. 2013;53(Suppl 1):7.

Espeland MA, Brancati FL, Evans M, Gregg E, Kahn SE, Lewis CE, Pi-Sunyer X, Wing R. Design and primary findings of the action for health in diabetes trial [abstract]. Gerontologist. 2013;53(Suppl 1):388.

Marx N, Rosenstock J, Kahn SE, Zinman B, Kastelein JJ, Lachin J, Espeland MA, Bluhmki E, Mattheus M, Patel S, Johansen O, Woerle HJ. Baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the cardiovascular outcome study of linagliptin versus glimepiride in early type 2 diabetes (CAROLINA) [abstract]. Diabetologia. 2013;56(Suppl 1):S36-S37.

Miller ME, Walkup MP, Barnes DE, Johnson KC, Lopez OL, Williamson JD, Pahor M, Espeland MA. Using external data to project the incidence of dementia in the life cohort [abstract]. Gerontologist. 2013;53(Suppl 1):549.

Rapp SR, Espeland MA, Manson JE, Resnick SM, Bryan NR, Smoller S, Coker LH, Phillips LS, Stefanick ML, Sarto GE. Educational attainment, MRI changes, and cognitive function in older postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2013;46(2):121-143.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Quick Reference

Request an Appointment
New Patients


Existing patients may contact the clinic directly.
Find a Doctor Ways to Give
USNWR 2015-2016Magnet Hospital RecognitionConsumer Choice2015 Best DoctorsJoint Commission Report

Disclaimer: The information on this website is for general informational purposes only and SHOULD NOT be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice, evaluation or care from your physician or other qualified health care provider.