Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D.

Associate Professor,

Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-7473


Education & Training

  • B.A., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee , 1997
  • Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology , 2002
  • Residency, U Mississippi Med Ctr, 2002
  • Fellowship, Psychology, Northwestern University Medica, 2004
Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D.

Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Anesthesiology

Research Interests

pain, women's health issues

Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-7473


Recent Publications

Boada MD, Gutierrez S, Aschenbrenner CA, Houle TT, Hayashida KI, Ririe DG, Eisenach JC. Nerve injury induces a new profile of tactile and mechanical nociceptor input from undamaged peripheral afferents. J Neurophysiol. 2015;113(1):100-109.

Peters CM, Hayashida KI, Suto T, Houle TT, Aschenbrenner CA, Martin TJ, Eisenach JC. Individual differences in acute pain-induced endogenous analgesia predict time to resolution of postoperative pain in the rat. Anesthesiology. 2015;():.

McDermott MJ, Tull MT, Gratz KL, Houle TT, Smitherman TA. Comorbidity of migraine and psychiatric disorders among substance-dependent inpatients. Headache. 2014;54(2):290-302.

Turner DP, Smitherman TA, Penzien DB, Porter JA, Martin VT, Houle TT. Nighttime snacking, stress, and migraine activity. J Clin Neurosci. 2014;21(4):638-643.

Sher T, Braun L, Domas A, Bellg A, Baucom DH, Houle TT. The partners for life program: a couples approach to cardiac risk reduction. Fam Process. 2014;53(1):131-149.

Peters CM, Ririe D, Houle TT, Aschenbrenner CA, Eisenach JC. Nociceptor-selective peripheral nerve block induces delayed mechanical hypersensitivity and neurotoxicity in rats. Anesthesiology. 2014;120(4):976-986.

Turner KR, Fisher EC, Hade EM, Houle TT, Rocco MV. The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after cardiothoracic surgery. Front Pharmacol. 2014;5():127.

Wells RE, Smitherman TA, Seng EK, Houle TT, Loder EW. Behavioral and mind/body interventions in headache: unanswered questions and future research directions. Headache. 2014;54(6):1107-1113.

Eisenach JC, Houle TT. Replication to advance science: changes in ANESTHESIOLOGY [editorial]. Anesthesiology. 2014;121(2):209-211.

Aschenbrenner CA, Houle TT, Gutierrez S, Eisenach JC. Modeling individual recovery after peripheral nerve injury in rats and the effects of parturition. Anesthesiology. 2014;121(5):1056-1067.

Mason KP, Turner DP, Houle TT, Fontaine PJ, Lerman J. Hemodynamic response to fluid management in children undergoing dexmedetomidine sedation for MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014;202(6):W574-W579.

Black A, Johnson YL, Houle TT, Smitherman TA. Perceived headache triggers as a function of headache diagnosis versus headache frequency [abstract]. Headache. 2014;54(Suppl 1):61.

Smitherman TA, Walters A, Ambrose CE, Davis RE, Roland M, Houle TT, Rains J. Randomized controlled trial of behavioral insomnia treatment for chronic migraine with comorbid insomnia: preliminary results of a sham-controlled pilot study [abstract]. Headache. 2014;54(Suppl 1):33-34.

Wells RE, Burch R, Paulsen RH, Wayne PM, Houle TT, Loder E. Meditation for migraines: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Headache. 2014;54(9):1484-1495.

Danilo Boada M, Martin TJ, Peters CM, Hayashida K, Harris MH, Houle TT, Boyden ES, Eisenach JC, Ririe DG. Fast-conducting mechanoreceptors contribute to withdrawal behavior in normal and nerve injured rats. Pain. 2014;155(12):2646-2655.

Smitherman TA, Davis RE, Walters AB, Young J, Houle TT. Anxiety sensitivity and headache: diagnostic differences, impact, and relations with perceived headache triggers. Cephalalgia. 2014;():.

Bellinger CR, Chatterjee AB, Adair N, Houle T, Khan I, Haponik E. Training in and experience with endobronchial ultrasound. Respiration. 2014;88(6):478-483.

Rothrock JF, Bloudek LM, Houle TT, Andress-Rothrock D, Varon SF. Real-world economic impact of onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with chronic migraine. Headache. 2014;54(10):1565-1573.

Gutierrez S, Liu B, Hayashida K, Houle TT, Eisenach JC. Reversal of peripheral nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity in the postpartum period: role of spinal oxytocin. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(1):152-159.

Eisenach JC, Pan P, Smiley RM, Lavand'homme P, Landau R, Houle TT. Resolution of pain after childbirth. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(1):143-151.

Turner DP, Houle TT. Psychological evaluation of a primary headache patient. Pain Manag. 2013;3(1):19-25.

Houle TT, Turner DP. Natural experimentation is a challenging method for identifying headache triggers. Headache. 2013;53(4):636-643.

Turner DP, Smitherman TA, Martin VT, Penzien DB, Houle TT. Causality and headache triggers. Headache. 2013;53(4):628-635.

Pan PH, Tonidandel AM, Aschenbrenner CA, Houle TT, Harris LC, Eisenach JC. Predicting acute pain after cesarean delivery using three simple questions. Anesthesiology. 2013;118(5):1170-1179.

Houle TT, Turner DP, Smitherman TA, Penzien DB, Lipton RB. Influence of random measurement error on estimated rates of headache chronification and remission. Headache. 2013;53(6):920-929.

Houle TT, Turner DP, Houle TA, Smitherman TA, Martin V, Penzien DB, Lipton RB. Rounding behavior in the reporting of headache frequency complicates headache chronification research. Headache. 2013;53(6):908-919.

Turner DP, Smitherman TA, Penzien DB, Lipton RB, Houle TT. Rethinking headache chronification. Headache. 2013;53(6):901-907.

Lipton RB, Penzien DB, Turner DP, Smitherman TA, Houle TT. Methodological issues in studying rates and predictors of migraine progression and remission. Headache. 2013;53(6):930-934.

Turner D, Miller S, Aschenbrenner C, Houle T, Eisenach J. Predicting pain after joint surgery [abstract]. J Pain. 2013;14(4 Suppl 1):S15.

Houle TT, Turner DP. Bayesian statistical inference in anesthesiology [editorial]. Anesthesiology. 2013;119(1):4-6.

Houle TT, Turner DP, Penzien DB. Type I error in headache research [editorial]. Headache. 2013;53(7):1031-1033.

Rothrock JF, Bloudek LM, Houle TT, Andress-Rothrock D, Hanlon C, Varon SF. Real-world economic impact of onabotulinumtoxina in patients with chronic migraine. J Headache Pain. 2013;14(Suppl 1):P216.

Moynahan VL, McDermott MJ, Tull MT, Gratz KL, Houle TT, Smitherman TA. Comorbidity of migraine and affective disorders among substance dependent inpatients [abstract]. Cephalalgia. 2013;33(8 Suppl):68.

Tegeler, CH, Tegeler CL, Kumar SR, Turner DP, Gerdes L, Lee SW, Houle TT. Randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of a novel, noninvasive EEG-based intervention, HIRREM, for alleviation of episodic migraine [abstract]. Cephalalgia. 2013;33(8 Suppl):99-100.

Turner DP, Smitherman TA, Penzien DB, Porter JAH, Houle TT. Are migraine and tension headaches categorical types or on a continuum? [abstract]. Cephalalgia. 2013;33(8 Suppl):130.

Wells RE, Burch R, Paulsen R, Wayne P, Aschenbrenner C, Houle TT, Eisenach JC, Loder E. Meditation for migraines: a pilot randomized controlled trial [abstract]. Cephalalgia. 2013;33(8 Suppl):96-97.

Turner DP, Smitherman TA, Eisenach JC, Penzien DB, Houle TT. Predictors of headache before, during, and after pregnancy: a cohort study. Headache. 2012;52(3):348-362.

Tegeler CH, Kumar S, Conklin D, Turner D, Tegeler C, McCall V, Houle T. A new method of dynamic, relational, electroencephalic auditory feedback for primary insomnia [abstract]. Sleep. 2012;35(Abstract Suppl):A220.

Rothrock J, Bloudek L, Houle T, Andress-Rothrock D, Hanlon C, Varon S. Real-world economic impact of onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with chronic migraine [abstract]. Neurology. 2012;78(Suppl 1):P03233.

Turner DP, Lipton RB, Houle TA, Penzien DB, Martin VT, Houle TT. Rounding may bias self-reported headache frequency: results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) study [abstract]. Headache. 2012;52(5):891-892.

Walters AB, Hamer JD, Houle TT, Smitherman TA. Anxiety sensitivity and headache triggers [abstract]. Headache. 2012;52(5):911-912.

King RB, Hartke RJ, Houle T, Lee J, Herring G, Alexander-Peterson BS, Raad J. A problem-solving early intervention for stroke caregivers: one year follow-up. Rehabil Nurs. 2012;37(5):231-243.

Houle TT, Butschek RA, Turner DP, Smitherman TA, Rains JC, Penzien DB. Stress and sleep duration predict headache severity in chronic headache sufferers. Pain. 2012;153(12):2432-2440.

Tegeler CH, Kumar SR, Conklin D, Lee SW, Gerdes L, Turner DP, Tegeler CL, C Fidali B, Houle TT. Open label, randomized, crossover pilot trial of high-resolution, relational, resonance-based, electroencephalic mirroring to relieve insomnia. Brain Behav. 2012;2(6):814-824.

Galovski TE, Blain LM, Mott JM, Elwood L, Houle T. Manualized therapy for PTSD: flexing the structure of cognitive processing therapy. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2012;80(6):968-981.

Schafer AM, Rains JC, Penzien DB, Groban L, Smitherman TA, Houle TT. Direct costs of preventive headache treatments: comparison of behavioral and pharmacologic approaches. Headache. 2011;51(6):985-991.

Baillie LE, Turner DP, Penzien DB, Houle TT. Adherence of Headache abstracts to CONSORT guidelines for reporting of clinical trials [abstract]. Headache. 2011;51(Suppl 1):20.

Martin GV, Houle T, Nicholson R, Peterlin A, Martin VT. Lightning: a previously unrecognized trigger for headache in migraineurs [abstract]. Headache. 2011;51(Suppl 1):29.

Turner DP, Tegeler CH, Kumar S, Penzien DB, Rains JC, Smitherman TA, Houle TT. Rounding MIDAS scores is reduced with a decreased recall interval [abstract]. Headache. 2011;51(Suppl 1):26.

Reed J, deShazo RD, Houle TT, Stringer S, Wright L, Moak S. Anosmia and sarcoidosis [reply to letter]. Am J Med. 2011;124(9):E27.

McCormick JG, Houle TT, Saltzman HA, Whaley RC, Roy RC. Treatment of acute stroke with hyperbaric oxygen: time window for efficacy. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2011;38(5):321-334.

Jain RK, Antonio BL, Bowton DL, Houle TT, MacGregor DA. Variability in central venous pressure measurements and the potential impact on fluid management. Shock. 2010;33(3):253-257.

Groban L, Sanders DM, Houle TT, Antonio BL, Ntuen EC, Zvara DA, Kon ND, Kincaid EH. Prognostic value of tissue Doppler-derived E/e' on early morbid events after cardiac surgery. Echocardiography. 2010;27(2):131-138.

Ray P, Le Manach Y, Riou B, Houle TT. Statistical evaluation of a biomarker. Anesthesiology. 2010;112(4):1023-1040.

Eisenach JC, Curry R, Tong C, Houle TT, Yaksh TL. Effects of intrathecal ketorolac on human experimental pain. Anesthesiology. 2010;112(5):1216-1224.

Sinha SK, Abrams JH, Houle TT, Weller RS. Ultrasound-guided interfascial injection for peripheral obturator nerve block in the thigh [reply to letter]. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35(3):315.

Brown KB, Turner DP, Rains J, Penzien DB, Martin VT, Houle TT. Historical examination of headache triggers: millennia of observations by philosophers, physicians, and other theorists underlie current conceptualization of headache [abstract]. Headache. 2010;50(Suppl 1):S27.

Butschek RA, Turner DP, Rains J, Penzien DB, Martin VT, Houle TT. Time-series analysis of stress, sleep and pain in patients with migraine and tension-type headache: marked individual differences argue for individualized analysis of headache trigger patterns [abstract]. Headache. 2010;50(Suppl 1):S44.

Reed J, deShazo RD, Houle TT, Stringer S, Wright L, Moak JS III. Clinical features of sarcoid rhinosinusitis. Am J Med. 2010;123(9):856-862.

Turner DP, Houle TT, Eisenach JC, Pan PH. Peripartum experience of problem headache sufferers [abstract]. Headache. 2010;50(Suppl 1):S21.

Brock MF, Reece WM, Houle TT. A survey of anesthesiology resident response to introduction of the learning portfolio [abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA); 2010 Oct 16-20; San Diego (CA). 2010;():A1100.

Brock MF, Grace BE, Morley B, Hillegass G, Houle TT, Groban L. Does lidocaine more effectively prevent pain upon induction with propofol or etomidate when given preemptively than when mixed with the drug?. J Clin Anesth. 2010;22(7):505-509.

Hadzic A, Houle TT, Capdevila X, Ilfeld BM. Femoral nerve block for analgesia in patients having knee arthroplasty [editorial]. Anesthesiology. 2010;113(5):1014-1015.

King RB, Hartke RJ, Houle TT. Patterns of relationships between background characteristics, coping, and stroke caregiver outcomes. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2010;17(4):308-317.

Boada MD, Houle TT, Eisenach JC, Ririe DG. Differing neurophysiologic mechanosensory input from glabrous and hairy skin in juvenile rats. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104(6):3568-3575.

Starr CJ, Houle TT, Coghill RC. Psychological and sensory predictors of experimental thermal pain: a multifactorial model. J Pain. 2010;11(12):1394-1402.

Hadsel MS, Quevedo A, Oshiro Y, Houle TT, Kraft RA, Coghill RC. Effect of anxiety-proneness on nucleus accumbens activity during noxious stimulation: a psychophysical and functional magnetic resonance imaging study [abstract]. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 2010;2010(Neuroscience Meeting Planner):.

Ramsdell R, Lerman J, Pickhardt D, Feldman D, Foster J, Houle TT. Subspecialty impact factors: the contribution of pediatric anesthesia and pain articles. Anesth Analg. 2009;108(1):105-110.

Houle TT, Penzien DB. Statistical reviewing for headache [editorial]. Headache. 2009;49(2):159-161.

Lerman J, Houle TT, Matthews BT, Houck J, Burrows FA. Propofol for tracheal intubation in children anesthetized with sevoflurane: a dose-response study. Pediatr Anesth. 2009;19(3):218-224.

Harden RN, Cottrill J, Gagnon CM, Smitherman TA, Weinland SR, Tann B, Joseph P, Lee TS, Houle TT. Botulinum toxin A in the treatment of chronic tension-type headache with cervical myofascial trigger points: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Headache. 2009;49(5):732-743.

Sinha SK, Abrams JH, Houle TT, Weller RS. Ultrasound-guided obturator nerve block: an interfascial injection approach without nerve stimulation. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34(3):261-264.

Hadsel M, Quevedo A, Oshiro Y, Houle T, Schmidt J, Stapleton J, Kraft R, Coghill R. Interrelationships between anxiety proneness and central autonomic processing during pain: a psychophysical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study [abstract]. J Pain. 2009;10(4 Suppl 1):S27.

Miano TA, Reichert MG, Houle TT, MacGregor DA, Kincaid EH, Bowton DL. Nosocomial pneumonia risk and stress ulcer prophylaxis: a comparison of pantoprazole vs ranitidine in cardiothoracic surgery patients. Chest. 2009;136(2):440-447.

Martin VT, Houle T. Ovarian hormones and migraine headache: in search of the holy grail [abstract]. Cephalalgia. 2009;29(Suppl 1):89.

Houle TT, Eisenach JC. The need for perspective [reply to letter]. Anesthesiology. 2009;111(6):1386-1387.

McDowell JN, Houle TT, Weller RS. Minimum detection volume during simulated ultrasound-guided nerve block [abstract]. In: Abstracts - Spring 2009 Abstract Archives of the ASRA 34th Annual Regional Anesthesia Meeting; 2009 Apr 30-May 3; Phoenix (AZ). 2009;():Abstr 78.

Reichert M, Sane D, Houle T, Kon N, Kincaid E. The effect of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) supplementation on bleeding indices in cardiac surgery patients [abstract]. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(12 Suppl):A105.

Houle T, Nash JM. Stress and headache chronification. Headache. 2008;48(1):40-44.

Nuttall GA, Houle TT. Liars, damn liars, and propensity scores [editorial]. Anesthesiology. 2008;108(1):3-4.

Groban L, Yamaleyeva LM, Westwood BM, Houle TT, Lin M, Kitzman DW, Chappell MC. Progressive diastolic dysfunction in the female mRen(2).Lewis rat: influence of salt and ovarian hormones. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63(1):3-11.

Houle TT, Stump DA. Statistical significance versus clinical significance. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2008;12(1):5-6.

Gagnon CM, Houle TT, Smitherman TA, Weinland SR, Harden RN. Botulinum toxin A in the treatment of chronic tension-type headache with cervical myofascial trigger points: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial [abstract]. Headache. 2008;48(Suppl 1):S48.

Eisenach JC, Pan PH, Smiley R, Lavand-homme P, Landau R, Houle TT. Severity of acute pain after childbirth, but not type of delivery, predicts persistent pain and postpartum depression. Pain. 2008;140(1):87-94.

Groban L, Jobe H, Lin M, Houle T, Kitzman DA, Sonntag W. Effects of short-term treadmill exercise training or growth hormone supplementation on diastolic function and exercise tolerance in old rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63(9):911-920.

Tonidandel AM, Pan PH, Eisenach JC, Houle TT, Harris L. A simple model for predicting postcesarean section pain and analgesic requirement [abstract]. Anesthesiology. 2008;109():Abstr 578.

Sanders D, Houle T, Kon N, Zvara D, Groban L. Diastolic dysfunction predicts adverse outcome after cardiac surgery [abstract]. Anesthesiology. 2008;109():Abstr 1592.

Hadsel MS, Quevedo A, Oshiro Y, Houle TT, McHaffie JG, Kraft RA, Coghill RC. Precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex activity in experimental pain--a functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) study [abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 12th World Congress on Pain [on CD]. 2008;():PF 139.

Houle TT. Importance of effect sizes for the accumulation of knowledge [editorial]. Anesthesiology. 2007;106(3):415-417.

Nicholson RA, Houle TT, Rhudy JL, Norton PJ. Psychological risk factors in headache. Headache. 2007;47(3):413-426.

Landau R, Lavand'Homme P, Houle T, Smiley R, Harris L, Pan PH, Eisenach J. Predictive factors for acute pain after vaginal and cesarean deliveries [abstract]. Anesthesiology. 2007;106(5 Suppl 1):22.

Pan PH, Smiley R, Houle T, Landau R, Lavand'Homme P, Harris L, Eisenach J. Predictive factors for chronic pain at 8 weeks after vaginal or cesarean deliveries [abstract]. Anesthesiology. 2007;106(5 Suppl 1):75.

Stribling WK, Slaughter TF, Houle TT, Sane DC. Beyond the platelet count: heparin antibodies as independent risk predictors. Am Heart J. 2007;153(6):900-906.

Burow B, Burow W, Tarter W, Gerancher J, Houle T. Extended-release epidural morphine: a retrospective analysis of our first year's experience [abstract]. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32():A-57.

Pan PH, Smiley R, Houle T, Landau R, Lavand'Homme P, Harris L, Eisenach J. Chronic pain after delivery--is it different between vaginal and operative deliveries? [abstract]. Anesthesiology. 2007;106(Suppl 1):22.

Smitherman TA, Huerkamp JK, Miller BI, Houle TT, O'Jile JR. The relation of depression and anxiety to measures of executive functioning in a mixed psychiatric sample. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2007;22(5):647-654.

Starr C, Houle T, Coghill R. Multifactorial predictors of experimental thermal pain [abstract]. J Pain. 2007;8(4 Suppl):S18.

Martin VT, Houle T, Bean J. Mid-cycle migraines: do they exist? [abstract]. Headache. 2007;47(5):788.

Houle TT. Statistical reporting for current and future readers [editorial]. Anesthesiology. 2007;107(2):193-194.

Pan PH, Smiley R, Lavand'Homme P, Houle T, Eisenach J. Predictive factors for chronic pain at 8 weeks after vaginal or cesarean deliveries [abstract]. Anesthesiology. 2007;107():Abstr 1203.

Landau R, Pan PH, Smiley R, Houle T, Lavand'homme P, Harris L, Eisenach J. Incidence of chronic pain after vaginal or cesarean delivery and predictive factors [abstract]. Swiss Med Wkly. 2007;137(Suppl 160):23S.

Landau R, Pan RH [sic] [Pan PH], Smiley R, Houle T, Lavandhommel R, [Lavand'homme P] Hams L, Eisenach J. Predictive factors of acute pain after delivery [abstract]. Swiss Med Wkly. 2007;137(Suppl 160):23S.

Miano T, Reichert M, MacGregor D, Houle T, Kincaid E, Bowton D. Comparison of nosocomial pneumonia risk in cardiothoracic surgery patients receiving pantoprazole or ranitidine for stress ulcer prophylaxis [abstract]. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(12 Suppl):A249.

Richards DC, Houle TT, Amitie D, Beck C, Zvara D. Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta detected by TEE predicts renal failure after cardiac surgery [abstract]. Anesthesiology. 2006;105():A25.

Corcoran W, Butterworth J, Weller RS, Beck JC, Gerancher JC, Houle TT, Groban L. Local anesthetic-induced cardiac toxicity: a survey of contemporary practice strategies among academic anesthesiology departments. Anesth Analg. 2006;103(5):1322-1326.

Houle TT, Poston RS, Stump DA. Statistical interpretation: the art and occasional science. Heart Surg Forum. 2006;9(6):1-3.

Stump DA, Houle TT, Poston RS. Statistical interpretation: how you ask the question dictates the outcome. Heart Surg Forum. 2006;4(2):24-25.

Antonio B, Houle T, Groban L, Kincaid T. Cardiac surgical intensive care unit readmissions: does preoperative diastolic dysfunction have a role? [abstract]. Crit Care Med. 2006;34(12 Suppl):A58.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Associate Professor, Anesthesiology

Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D.

Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Anesthesiology

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