Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Education & Training

  • B.S., Wake Forest University, 1990
  • M.S., Wake Forest University, 1992
  • Ph.D., WFU School of Medicine, 1996
  • Fellowship, Johns Hopkins University Schoo, 1997
  • Fellowship, University of Maryland School, 1998
Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.

Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Center for Comparative Medicine Research
Center for Worker Health
Center for Public Health Genomics
Pediatrics - Medical Genetics
Translational Science Institute

Research Interests

genetics/genome, neurosciences/behavior

Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-7509 | Department: 336-713-7509


Recent Publications

Nguyen HT, Quandt SA, Summers P, Morgan TM, Chen H, Walker FO, Howard TD, Galvan L, Arcury TA. Learning ability as a function of practice: does it apply to farmworkers?. J Occup Environ Med. 2015;57(6):676-681.

Ding J, Reynolds LM, Zeller T, Muller C, Mstat KL, Nicklas BJ, Kritchevsky SB, Huang Z, Fuente A, Soranzo N, Settlage RE, Chuang CC, Howard T, Xu N, Goodarzi MO, Ida Chen YD, Rotter JI, Siscovick DS, Parks JS, Murphy S, Jacobs DR Jr,. Alterations of a cellular cholesterol metabolism network are a molecular feature of obesity-related type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes. 2015;64(10):3464-3474.

Reynolds LM, Wan M, Ding J, Taylor JR, Lohman K, Su D, Bennett BD, Porter DK, Gimple R, Pittman GS, Wang X, Howard TD, Siscovick D, Psaty BM, Shea S, Burke GL, Jacobs DR Jr, Rich SS, Hixson JE, Stein JH, Stunnenberg H, Barr RG,. DNA methylation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor associations with cigarette smoking and subclinical atherosclerosis. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2015;():.

Woo D, Falcone GJ, Devan WJ, Brown WM, Biffi A, Howard TD, Anderson CD, Brouwers HB, Valant V, Battey TW, Radmanesh F, Raffeld MR, Baedorf-Kassis S, Deka R, Woo JG, Martin LJ, Haverbusch M, Moomaw CJ, Sun G, Broderick JP, Flaherty ML,. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 1q22 as a susceptibility locus for intracerebral hemorrhage. Am J Hum Genet. 2014;94(4):511-521.

Howard TD, Mathias RA, Seeds MC, Herrington DM, Hixson JE, Shimmin LC, Hawkins GA, Sellers M, Ainsworth HC, Sergeant S, Miller LR, Chilton FH. DNA methylation in an enhancer region of the FADS cluster is associated with FADS activity in human liver. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e97510.

Arcury TA, Nguyen HT, Summers P, Talton JW, Holbrook LC, [sic] [Holbrook LG], Walker FO, Chen H, Howard TD, Galvan L, Quandt SA. Lifetime and current pesticide exposure among Latino farmworkers in comparison to other Latino immigrants. Am J Ind Med. 2014;57(7):776-787.

Hester AG, Murphy RC, Uhlson CJ, Ivester P, Lee TC, Sergeant S, Miller LR, Howard TD, Mathias RA, Chilton FH. Relationship between a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster and eicosanoid generation in humans. J Biol Chem. 2014;289(32):22482-89.

Chilton F, Mathias R, Seeds M, Herrington D, Hixson J, Hawkins G, Sergeant S, Miller L, Howard T. DNA methylation in an enhancer region of the FADS cluster is associated with FADS activity in human liver [abstract]. FASEB J. 2014;28(1 Suppl):373.8.

Shah SA, Herrington DM, Howard TD, Divers J, Arnett DK, Burke GL, Kao WH, Guo X, Siscovick DS, Chakravarti A, Lima JA, Psaty BM, Tomaselli GF, Rich SS, Bowden DW, Post W. Associations between NOS1AP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and QT interval duration in four racial/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2013;18(1):29-40.

Monda KL, Chen GK, Taylor KC, Ng MCY, Liu Y, Freedman BI, Howard TD, Langefeld CD, Lohman K, Palmer ND, Shriner DA, Burke G, Ding J, et al. A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry. Nat Genet. 2013;45(6):690-696.

Fu Z, Yan K, Rosenberg A, Jin Z, Crain B, Athas G, Heide RS, Howard T, Everett AD, Herrington D, Van Eyk JE. Improved protein extraction and protein identification from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human aortas. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2013;7(3-4):217-224.

Li X, Hawkins GA, Ampleford EJ, Moore WC, Li H, Hastie AT, Howard TD, Boushey HA, Busse WW, Calhoun WJ, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Israel E, Lemanske RF Jr, Szefler SJ, Wasserman SI, Wenzel SE, Peters SP, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER. Genome-wide association study identifies TH1 pathway genes associated with lung function in asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(2):313-320.

Quandt SA, Kucera KL, Haynes C, Klein BG, Langley R, Agnew M, Levin JL, Howard T, Nussbaum MA. Occupational health outcomes for workers in the agriculture, forestry and fishing sector: implications for immigrant workers in the southeastern US. Am J Ind Med. 2013;56(8):940-959.

Spears CR, Sandberg JC, O'Neill JL, Grzywacz JG, Howard TD, Feldman SR, Arcury TA. Recruiting underserved mothers to medical research: findings from North Carolina. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2013;24(4):1801-1815.

Clancy RM, Buyon JP, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Brucato A, Levesque K, Ramoni V, Marion MC, Comeau M, Sajuthi S, Ramos PS, Kimberly RP, Howard TD, Langefeld CD. Accounting for parental load and identification of multiple risk variants for anti-Ro congenital heart block through high-density genotyping of immune-related loci [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65(Suppl 10):S1226.

Liu Y, Ding J, Reynolds LM, Lohman K, Register TC, De La Fuente A, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, Cui W, Morris J, Smith SG, Barr RG, Kaufman JD, Burke GL, Post W, Shea S, McCall CE, Siscovick D, Jacobs DR Jr, Tracy RP,. Methylomics of gene expression in human monocytes. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22(24):5065-5074.

Cooke Bailey JN, Lu L, Chou JW, Xu J, McWilliams DR, Howard TD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Palmer ND. The role of copy number variation in African Americans with Type 2 diabetes-associated end stage renal disease. J Mol Genet Med. 2013;7(2):61.

Cammarata MW, Howard TD, Register TC, Shea SJ, Hawkins GA, Burke GL, Jacobs DR, Hoeschele I, Liu YM, Herrington DM. Association of DNA methylation and gene expression of the P2Y12 receptor: the Multi-Ethnic Study on Atherosclerosis [abstract]. Circulation. 2013;128(22 Suppl):A13189.

Mitchell GF, Verwoert GC, Tarasov KV, Isaacs A, Smith AV, Liu Y, Andrews JS, Howard TD, Herrington DM, Ding J, et al. Common genetic variation in the 3'-BCL11B gene desert is associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and excess cardiovascular disease risk: the AortaGen Consortium. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5(1):81-90.

Li X, Ampleford EJ, Howard TD, Moore WC, Li H, Busse WW, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Fitzpatrick AM, Gaston B, Israel E, Jarjour NN, Teague WG, Wenzel SE, Hawkins GA, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA. The C11orf30-LRRC32 region is associated with total serum IgE levels in asthmatic patients [letter]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(2):575-578.

Li X, Moore WC, Li H, Ampleford EJ, Busse WW, Erzurum SC, Wenzel SE, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER. Phenotype determinants for asthma severity clusters and genetic association for cluster-based asthma severity in Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) [abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185(Meeting Abstracts):A2501.

Hawkins GA, Robinson MB, Hastie AT, Li X, Li H, Moore WC, Howard TD, Busse WW, Erzurum SC, Wenzel SE, Peters SP, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER. The IL6R variation Asp358 Ala is a potential modifier of lung function in subjects with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(2):510-515.

Chakraborty D, Bernal AJ, Schoch K, Howard TD, Ip EH, Hooper SR, Keshavan MS, Jirtle RL, Shashi V. Dysregulation of DGCR6 and DGCR6L: psychopathological outcomes in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2():e105.

Thompson SD, Marion MC, Sudman M, Ryan M, Tsoras M, Howard TD, Barnes MG, Ramos PS, Thomson W, Hinks A, Haas JP, Prahalad S, Bohnsack JF, Wise CA, Punaro M, Rose CD, Pajewski NM, Spigarelli M, Keddache M, Wagner M, Langefeld CD, Glass DN. Genome-wide association analysis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis identifies a new susceptibility locus at chromosomal region 3q13. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(8):2781-2791.

Shashi V, Francis A, Hooper SR, Kranz PG, Zapadka M, Schoch K, Ip E, Tandon N, Howard TD, Keshavan MS. Increased corpus callosum volume in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is associated with neurocognitive deficits and genetic polymorphisms. Eur J Hum Genet. 2012;20(10):1051-1057.

Torgerson DG, Capurso D, Ampleford EJ, Li X, Moore WC, Gignoux CR, Hu D, Eng C, Mathias RA, Busse WW, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Fitzpatrick AM, Gaston B, Israel E, Jarjour NN, Teague WG, Wenzel SE, Rodriguez-Santana JR,. Genome-wide ancestry association testing identifies a common European variant on 6q14.1 as a risk factor for asthma in African American subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(3):622-629.

Woo JG, Martin LJ, Ding L, Brown WM, Howard TD, Langefeld CD, Moomaw CJ, Haverbusch M, Sun G, Indugula SR, Cheng H, Deka R, Woo D. Quantitative criteria for improving performance of buccal DNA for high-throughput genetic analysis. BMC Genet. 2012;13():75.

Li X, Ampleford EJ, Howard TD, Moore WC, Torgerson DG, Li H, Busse WW, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Israel E, Nicolae DL, Ober C, Wenzel SE, Hawkins GA, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA. Genome-wide association studies of asthma indicate opposite immunopathogenesis direction from autoimmune diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(4):861-868.

Ramos PS, Howard TD, Marion MC, Sajuthi S, Kelly JA, Moser KL, Langefeld CD. Epigenetic profiling in monozygotic twins discordant for systemic lupus erythematosus reveals prominent hypomethylation of interferon-inducible genes [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(10 Suppl):S966.

Ramos PS, Howard TD, Marion MC, Sajuthi S, Clancy RM, Buyon JP, Langefeld CD. Epigenetic changes in fibrosis and myocyte repair genes may contribute to pathogenesis in monozygotic twins discordant for cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(10 Suppl):S137.

Li X, Howard TD, Moore WC, Ampleford EJ, Li H, Busse WW, Peters SP, Hawkins GA, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA, et al. Importance of hedgehog interacting protein and other lung function genes in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(6):1457-1465.

Hixson JE, Shimmin LC, Montasser ME, Kim D-K, Zhong Y, Howard T, Langefeld C, Liu Y, Herrington D, et al. Common variants in the periostin gene influence development of atherosclerosis in young persons. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31(7):1661-1667.

Gray SB, Langefeld CD, Ziegler JT, Hawkins GA, Wagner JD, Howard TD. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TNF gene are associated with obesity-related phenotypes in vervet monkeys. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(7):1427-1432.

Mirabelli MC, Hoppin JA, Chatterjee AB, Isom S, Chen H, Grzywacz JG, Howard TD, Quandt SA, Vallejos QM, Arcury TA. Job activities and respiratory symptoms among farmworkers in North Carolina. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2011;66(3):178-182.

Hou L, Arcury T, Quandt S, Miller L, Howard T, Grzywacz J, Miller J, Yalcinkaya TM. Use of spermatozoal mRNA profiles to study genes affected by pesticide exposure in humans [abstract]. Reprod Sci. 2011;18(4 Suppl):175A.

Howard TD, Ho S-M, Zhang L, Chen J, Cui W, Slager R, Gray S, Hawkins GA, Medvedovic M, Wagner JD. Epigenetic changes with dietary soy in cynomolgus monkeys. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e26791.

O'Donnell CJ, Kavousi M, Smith AV, Kardia SLR, Feitosa MF, Hwang S-J, Sun YV, Herrington DM, Howard TD, Liu Y, et al. Genome-wide association study for coronary artery calcification with follow-up in myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2011;124(25):2855-2864.

Shashi V, Kwapil TR, Kaczorowski J, Berry MN, Santos CS, Howard TD, Goradia D, Prasad K, Vaibhav D, Rajarethinam R, et al. Evidence of gray matter reduction and dysfunction in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Psychiatry Res. 2010;181(1):1-8.

Lamon-Fava S, Asztalos BF, Howard TD, Reboussin DM, Horvath KV, Schaefer EJ, Herrington DM. Association of polymorphisms in genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism with plasma concentrations of remnant lipoproteins and HDL subpopulations before and after hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol. 2010;72(2):169-175.

Li X, Howard TD, Zheng SL, Haselkorn T, Peters SP, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER. Genome-wide association study of asthma identifies RAD50-IL13 and HLA-DR/DQ regions. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(2):328-335.

Bottema RW, Nolte IM, Howard TD, Koppelman GH, Dubois AE, de Meer G, Kerkhof M, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA, Postma DS. Interleukin 13 and interleukin 4 receptor-alpha polymorphisms in rhinitis and asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;153(3):259-267.

Li X, Howard TD, Ampleford EJ, Peters SP, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA. Genome-wide association study of asthma severity using proportional odds model identifies TMEM154 [abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181(1 Meeting Abstracts):A3728.

Ohar JA, Howard TD, Ampleford EJ, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA. Genome wide association study in mesothelioma [abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181(1 Meeting Abstracts):A4340.

Shashi V, Howard TD, Keshavan MS, Kaczorowski J, Berry MN, Schoch K, Spence EJ, Kwapil TR. COMT and anxiety and cognition in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Psychiatry Res. 2010;178(2):433-436.

Howard TD, Hsu F-C, Grzywacz JG, Chen H, Quandt SA, Vallejos QM, Whalley LE, Cui W, Padilla S, Arcury TA. Evaluation of candidate genes for cholinesterase activity in farmworkers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides: association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in BCHE. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118(10):1395-1399.

Cann JA, Kavanagh K, Jorgensen MJ, Mohanan S, Howard TD, Gray SB, Hawkins GA, Fairbanks LA, Wagner JD. Clinicopathologic characterization of naturally occurring diabetes mellitus in vervet monkeys. Vet Pathol. 2010;47(4):713-718.

MacClellan LR, Howard TD, Cole JW, Stine OC, Giles WH, O'Connell JR, Wozniak MA, Stern BJ, Mitchell BD, Kittner SJ. Relation of candidate genes that encode for endothelial function to migraine and stroke: the Stroke Prevention in Young Women study. Stroke. 2009;40(10):e550-e557.

Koppelman GH, Meyers DA, Howard TD, Zheng SL, Hawkins GA, Ampleford EJ, Xu J, Koning H, Bruinenberg M, Bleecker ER, et al. Identification of PCDH1 as a novel susceptibility gene for bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180(10):929-935.

Gray SB, Howard TD, Langefeld CD, Hawkins GA, Diallo AF, Wagner JD. Comparative analyses of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TNF promoter region provide further validation for the vervet monkey model of obesity. Comp Med. 2009;59(6):580-588.

Koppelman GH, Meyers DA, Howard TD, Zheng SL, Hawkins GA, Ampleford EA, Xu J, Koning H, Bruinenberg M, Bleecker ER, et al. Identification of protocadherin-1 as a novel susceptibility gene for bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma [abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179(1 Meeting Abstracts):A2447.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

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