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Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.

Associate Professor,
Pediatrics - Medical Genetics

Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-7509 | Department: 336-713-7509


Education & Training

  • B.S., Wake Forest University, 1990
  • M.S., Wake Forest University, 1992
  • Ph.D., WFU School of Medicine, 1996
  • Fellowship, Johns Hopkins University Schoo, 1997
  • Fellowship, University of Maryland School, 1998
Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.

Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Pediatrics - Medical Genetics

Research Interests

Asthma; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; DNA Methylation; Polymorphism, Genetic; Genetic Predisposition to Disease
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Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-7509 | Department: 336-713-7509


Recent Publications

Pesticide urinary metabolites among Latina farmworkers and non-farmworkers in North Carolina. Arcury TA, Laurienti PJ, Talton JW, Chen H, Howard TD, Barr DB, Mora DC, Quandt SA.. J Occup Environ Med. 2018;60(1):e63-e71.

Tissue-specific impact of FADS cluster variants on FADS1 and FADS2 gene expression. Reynolds LM, Howard TD, Ruczinski I, Kanchan K, Seeds MC, Mathias RA, Chilton FH.. PLoS One. 2018;13(3):e0194610.

Allele-specific methylation in the FADS genomic region in DNA from human saliva, CD4+ cells, and total leukocytes. Rahbar E, Waits CMK, Kirby EH Jr, Miller LR, Ainsworth HC, Cui T, Sergeant S, Howard TD, Langefeld CD, Chilton FH.. Clin Epigenetics. 2018;10():46.

'He beat you in the blood': knowledge and beliefs about the transmission of traits among Latinos from Mexico and Central America. Sandberg JC, Rodriguez G, Howard TD, Quandt SA, Arcury TA.. J Immigr Minor Health. 2017;19(1):170-178.

The impacts of pesticide and nicotine exposures on functional brain networks in Latino immigrant workers. Bahrami M, Laurienti PJ, Quandt SA, Talton J, Pope CN, Summers P, Burdette JH, Chen H, Liu J, Howard TD, Arcury TA, Simpson SL.. Neurotoxicology. 2017;62():138-150.

Compositions and methods for epigenetic regulation of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Chilton FH, Howard TD, inventors; Wake Forest University Health Sciences, assignee.. United States patent US 9,663,824. 2017 May 30. 2017;():.

Farmworker and nonfarmworker Latino immigrant men in North Carolina have high levels of specific pesticide urinary metabolites. Arcury TA, Chen H, Laurienti PJ, Howard TD, Barr DB, Mora DC, Quandt SA.. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2017;():.

Whole exome sequencing to identify genetic variants associated with raised atherosclerotic lesions in young persons. Hixson JE, Jun G, Shimmin LC, Wang Y, Yu G, Mao C, Warren AS, Howard TD, Heide RSV, Van Eyk J, Wang Y, Herrington DM.. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):4091.

Transancestral mapping and genetic load in systemic lupus erythematosus. Langefeld CD, Ainsworth HC, Cunninghame Graham DS, Kelly JA, Comeau ME, Marion MC, Howard TD, Ramos PS, Croker JA, Morris DL, Sandling JK, Almlof JC, Acevedo-Vasquez EM, Alarcon GS, Babini AM, Baca V, Bengtsson AA, Berbotto GA,.. Nat Commun. 2017;8():16021.

Genome-wide association meta-analysis reveals novel juvenile idiopathic arthritis susceptibility loci. McIntosh LA, Marion MC, Sudman M, Comeau ME, Becker ML, Bohnsack JF, Fingerlin TE, Griffin TA, Haas JP, Lovell DJ, Maier LA, Nigrovic PA, Prahalad S, Punaro M, Rose CD, Wallace CA, Wise CA, Moncrieffe H, Howard TD, Langefeld CD, Thompson SD.. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69(11):2222-2232.

Uncovering the DNA methylation landscape in key regulatory regions within the FADS cluster. Rahbar E, Ainsworth HC, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, Ruczinski I, Mathias R, Seeds MC, Sergeant S, Hixson JE, Herrington DM, Langefeld CD, Chilton FH.. PLoS One. 2017;12(9):e0180903.

Bioinformatic analysis of coronary disease associated SNPs and genes to identify proteins potentially involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mao C, Howard TD, Sullivan D, Fu Z, Yu G, Parker SJ, Will R, Vander Heide RS, Wang Y, Hixson J, Van Eyk J, Herrington DM.. J Proteom Genom Res. 2017;2(1):1-12.

Urinary cotinine levels among Latino tobacco farmworkers in North Carolina compared to Latinos not employed in agriculture. Arcury TA, Laurienti PJ, Talton JW, Chen H, Howard TD, Summers P, Quandt SA.. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;18(6):1517-1525.

Germline BAP1 mutational landscape of asbestos-exposed malignant mesothelioma patients with family history of cancer. Ohar JA, Cheung M, Talarchek J, Howard SE, Howard TD, Hesdorffer M, Peng H, Rauscher FJ, Testa JR.. Cancer Res. 2016;76(2):206-215.

Genome-wide association study in an Amerindian ancestry population reveals novel systemic lupus erythematosus risk loci and the role of European admixture. Alarcon-Riquelme ME, Ziegler JT, Molineros J, Howard TD, Moreno-Estrada A, Sanchez-Rodriguez E, Ainsworth HC, Ortiz-Tello P, Comeau ME, Rasmussen A, Kelly JA, Adler A, Acevedo-Vazquez E, Cucho JM, la Torre IG, Cardiel MH, Miranda P, Catoggio L,.. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68(4):932-943.

Effects of pubertal exposure to dietary soy on estrogen receptor activity in the breast of cynomolgus macaques. Dewi FN, Wood CE, Willson CJ, Register TC, Lees CJ, Howard TD, Huang Z, Murphy SK, Tooze JA, Chou JW, Miller LD, Cline JM.. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2016;9(5):385-395.

Impact of genetic and epigenetic variations within the FADS cluster on the composition and metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in prostate cancer. Cui T, Hester AG, Seeds MC, Rahbar E, Howard TD, Sergeant S, Chilton FH.. Prostate. 2016;76(13):1182-1191.

Brain anatomy in Latino farmworkers exposed to pesticides and nicotine. Laurienti PJ, Burdette JH, Talton J, Pope CN, Summers P, Walker FO, Quandt SA, Lyday RG, Chen H, Howard TD, Arcury TA.. J Occup Environ Med. 2016;58(5):436-443.

Changes in DNA methylation over the growing season differ between North Carolina farmworkers and non-farmworkers. Howard TD, Hsu FC, Chen H, Quandt SA, Talton JW, Summers P, Arcury TA.. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016;89(7):1103-1110.

Organophosphate pesticide urinary metabolites among Latino immigrants: North Carolina farmworkers and non-farmworkers compared. Arcury TA, Laurienti PJ, Chen H, Howard TD, Barr DB, Mora DC, Summers P, Quandt SA.. J Occup Environ Med. 2016;58(11):1079-1086.

Learning ability as a function of practice: does it apply to farmworkers?. Nguyen HT, Quandt SA, Summers P, Morgan TM, Chen H, Walker FO, Howard TD, Galvan L, Arcury TA.. J Occup Environ Med. 2015;57(6):676-681.

Alterations of a cellular cholesterol metabolism network are a molecular feature of obesity-related type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Ding J, Reynolds LM, Zeller T, Muller C, Mstat KL, Nicklas BJ, Kritchevsky SB, Huang Z, Fuente A, Soranzo N, Settlage RE, Chuang CC, Howard T, Xu N, Goodarzi MO, Ida Chen YD, Rotter JI, Siscovick DS, Parks JS, Murphy S, Jacobs DR Jr,.. Diabetes. 2015;64(10):3464-3474.

DNA methylation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor associations with cigarette smoking and subclinical atherosclerosis. Reynolds LM, Wan M, Ding J, Taylor JR, Lohman K, Su D, Bennett BD, Porter DK, Gimple R, Pittman GS, Wang X, Howard TD, Siscovick D, Psaty BM, Shea S, Burke GL, Jacobs DR Jr, Rich SS, Hixson JE, Stein JH, Stunnenberg H, Barr RG,.. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2015;8(5):707-716.

The RBMX gene as a candidate for the Shashi X-linked intellectual disability syndrome. Shashi V, Xie P, Schoch K, Goldstein DB, Howard TD, Berry MN, Schwartz CE, Cronin K, Sliwa S, Allen A, Need AC.. Clin Genet. 2015;88(4):386-390.

Prevalence of BAP1 germline mutations in asbestos-exposed malignant mesothelioma cases and controls [abstract]. Cheung M, Talarchek J, Howard SE, Howard T, Peng HZ, Hesdorffer M, Rauscher FJ, Ohar JA, Testa J.. Cancer Res. 2015;75(15 Suppl):2752.

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 1q22 as a susceptibility locus for intracerebral hemorrhage. Woo D, Falcone GJ, Devan WJ, Brown WM, Biffi A, Howard TD, Anderson CD, Brouwers HB, Valant V, Battey TW, Radmanesh F, Raffeld MR, Baedorf-Kassis S, Deka R, Woo JG, Martin LJ, Haverbusch M, Moomaw CJ, Sun G, Broderick JP, Flaherty ML,.. Am J Hum Genet. 2014;94(4):511-521.

DNA methylation in an enhancer region of the FADS cluster is associated with FADS activity in human liver. Howard TD, Mathias RA, Seeds MC, Herrington DM, Hixson JE, Shimmin LC, Hawkins GA, Sellers M, Ainsworth HC, Sergeant S, Miller LR, Chilton FH.. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e97510.

Lifetime and current pesticide exposure among Latino farmworkers in comparison to other Latino immigrants. Arcury TA, Nguyen HT, Summers P, Talton JW, Holbrook LC, [sic] [Holbrook LG], Walker FO, Chen H, Howard TD, Galvan L, Quandt SA.. Am J Ind Med. 2014;57(7):776-787.

Relationship between a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster and eicosanoid generation in humans. Hester AG, Murphy RC, Uhlson CJ, Ivester P, Lee TC, Sergeant S, Miller LR, Howard TD, Mathias RA, Chilton FH.. J Biol Chem. 2014;289(32):22482-89.

DNA methylation in an enhancer region of the FADS cluster is associated with FADS activity in human liver [abstract]. Chilton F, Mathias R, Seeds M, Herrington D, Hixson J, Hawkins G, Sergeant S, Miller L, Howard T.. FASEB J. 2014;28(1 Suppl):373.8.

Associations between NOS1AP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and QT interval duration in four racial/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Shah SA, Herrington DM, Howard TD, Divers J, Arnett DK, Burke GL, Kao WH, Guo X, Siscovick DS, Chakravarti A, Lima JA, Psaty BM, Tomaselli GF, Rich SS, Bowden DW, Post W.. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2013;18(1):29-40.

A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry. Monda KL, Chen GK, Taylor KC, Ng MCY, Liu Y, Freedman BI, Howard TD, Langefeld CD, Lohman K, Palmer ND, Shriner DA, Burke G, Ding J, et al.. Nat Genet. 2013;45(6):690-696.

Improved protein extraction and protein identification from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human aortas. Fu Z, Yan K, Rosenberg A, Jin Z, Crain B, Athas G, Heide RS, Howard T, Everett AD, Herrington D, Van Eyk JE.. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2013;7(3-4):217-224.

Genome-wide association study identifies TH1 pathway genes associated with lung function in asthmatic patients. Li X, Hawkins GA, Ampleford EJ, Moore WC, Li H, Hastie AT, Howard TD, Boushey HA, Busse WW, Calhoun WJ, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Israel E, Lemanske RF Jr, Szefler SJ, Wasserman SI, Wenzel SE, Peters SP, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(2):313-320.

Occupational health outcomes for workers in the agriculture, forestry and fishing sector: implications for immigrant workers in the southeastern US. Quandt SA, Kucera KL, Haynes C, Klein BG, Langley R, Agnew M, Levin JL, Howard T, Nussbaum MA.. Am J Ind Med. 2013;56(8):940-959.

Recruiting underserved mothers to medical research: findings from North Carolina. Spears CR, Sandberg JC, O'Neill JL, Grzywacz JG, Howard TD, Feldman SR, Arcury TA.. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2013;24(4):1801-1815.

Accounting for parental load and identification of multiple risk variants for anti-Ro congenital heart block through high-density genotyping of immune-related loci [abstract]. Clancy RM, Buyon JP, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Brucato A, Levesque K, Ramoni V, Marion MC, Comeau M, Sajuthi S, Ramos PS, Kimberly RP, Howard TD, Langefeld CD.. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65(Suppl 10):S1226.

Methylomics of gene expression in human monocytes. Liu Y, Ding J, Reynolds LM, Lohman K, Register TC, De La Fuente A, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, Cui W, Morris J, Smith SG, Barr RG, Kaufman JD, Burke GL, Post W, Shea S, McCall CE, Siscovick D, Jacobs DR Jr, Tracy RP,.. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22(24):5065-5074.

The role of copy number variation in African Americans with Type 2 diabetes-associated end stage renal disease. Cooke Bailey JN, Lu L, Chou JW, Xu J, McWilliams DR, Howard TD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Palmer ND.. J Mol Genet Med. 2013;7(2):61.

Association of DNA methylation and gene expression of the P2Y12 receptor: the Multi-Ethnic Study on Atherosclerosis [abstract]. Cammarata MW, Howard TD, Register TC, Shea SJ, Hawkins GA, Burke GL, Jacobs DR, Hoeschele I, Liu YM, Herrington DM.. Circulation. 2013;128(22 Suppl):A13189.

Common genetic variation in the 3'-BCL11B gene desert is associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and excess cardiovascular disease risk: the AortaGen Consortium. Mitchell GF, Verwoert GC, Tarasov KV, Isaacs A, Smith AV, Liu Y, Andrews JS, Howard TD, Herrington DM, Ding J, et al.. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5(1):81-90.

The C11orf30-LRRC32 region is associated with total serum IgE levels in asthmatic patients [letter]. Li X, Ampleford EJ, Howard TD, Moore WC, Li H, Busse WW, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Fitzpatrick AM, Gaston B, Israel E, Jarjour NN, Teague WG, Wenzel SE, Hawkins GA, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(2):575-578.

Phenotype determinants for asthma severity clusters and genetic association for cluster-based asthma severity in Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) [abstract]. Li X, Moore WC, Li H, Ampleford EJ, Busse WW, Erzurum SC, Wenzel SE, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185(Meeting Abstracts):A2501.

The IL6R variation Asp358 Ala is a potential modifier of lung function in subjects with asthma. Hawkins GA, Robinson MB, Hastie AT, Li X, Li H, Moore WC, Howard TD, Busse WW, Erzurum SC, Wenzel SE, Peters SP, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(2):510-515.

Dysregulation of DGCR6 and DGCR6L: psychopathological outcomes in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chakraborty D, Bernal AJ, Schoch K, Howard TD, Ip EH, Hooper SR, Keshavan MS, Jirtle RL, Shashi V.. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2():e105.

Genome-wide association analysis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis identifies a new susceptibility locus at chromosomal region 3q13. Thompson SD, Marion MC, Sudman M, Ryan M, Tsoras M, Howard TD, Barnes MG, Ramos PS, Thomson W, Hinks A, Haas JP, Prahalad S, Bohnsack JF, Wise CA, Punaro M, Rose CD, Pajewski NM, Spigarelli M, Keddache M, Wagner M, Langefeld CD, Glass DN.. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(8):2781-2791.

Increased corpus callosum volume in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is associated with neurocognitive deficits and genetic polymorphisms. Shashi V, Francis A, Hooper SR, Kranz PG, Zapadka M, Schoch K, Ip E, Tandon N, Howard TD, Keshavan MS.. Eur J Hum Genet. 2012;20(10):1051-1057.

Genome-wide ancestry association testing identifies a common European variant on 6q14.1 as a risk factor for asthma in African American subjects. Torgerson DG, Capurso D, Ampleford EJ, Li X, Moore WC, Gignoux CR, Hu D, Eng C, Mathias RA, Busse WW, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Fitzpatrick AM, Gaston B, Israel E, Jarjour NN, Teague WG, Wenzel SE, Rodriguez-Santana JR,.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(3):622-629.

Quantitative criteria for improving performance of buccal DNA for high-throughput genetic analysis. Woo JG, Martin LJ, Ding L, Brown WM, Howard TD, Langefeld CD, Moomaw CJ, Haverbusch M, Sun G, Indugula SR, Cheng H, Deka R, Woo D.. BMC Genet. 2012;13():75.

Genome-wide association studies of asthma indicate opposite immunopathogenesis direction from autoimmune diseases. Li X, Ampleford EJ, Howard TD, Moore WC, Torgerson DG, Li H, Busse WW, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Israel E, Nicolae DL, Ober C, Wenzel SE, Hawkins GA, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(4):861-868.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.

Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Pediatrics - Medical Genetics

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