Skip Navigation


Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.

Associate Professor,

Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-7509 | Department: 336-713-7509


Education & Training

  • B.S., Wake Forest University, 1990
  • M.S., Wake Forest University, 1992
  • Ph.D., WFU School of Medicine, 1996
  • Fellowship, Johns Hopkins University Schoo, 1997
  • Fellowship, University of Maryland School, 1998
Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.

Timothy David Howard, Ph.D.

Associate Professor, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Pediatrics - Medical Genetics

Research Interests

Asthma; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Polymorphism, Genetic; Genome-Wide Association Study
More »

Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-7509 | Department: 336-713-7509


Recent Publications

'He beat you in the blood': knowledge and beliefs about the transmission of traits among Latinos from Mexico and Central America. Sandberg JC, Rodriguez G, Howard TD, Quandt SA, Arcury TA.. J Immigr Minor Health. 2017;19(1):170-178.

Urinary cotinine levels among Latino tobacco farmworkers in North Carolina compared to Latinos not employed in agriculture. Arcury TA, Laurienti PJ, Talton JW, Chen H, Howard TD, Summers P, Quandt SA.. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;18(6):1517-1525.

Germline BAP1 mutational landscape of asbestos-exposed malignant mesothelioma patients with family history of cancer. Ohar JA, Cheung M, Talarchek J, Howard SE, Howard TD, Hesdorffer M, Peng H, Rauscher FJ, Testa JR.. Cancer Res. 2016;76(2):206-215.

Genome-wide association study in an Amerindian ancestry population reveals novel systemic lupus erythematosus risk loci and the role of European admixture. Alarcon-Riquelme ME, Ziegler JT, Molineros J, Howard TD, Moreno-Estrada A, Sanchez-Rodriguez E, Ainsworth HC, Ortiz-Tello P, Comeau ME, Rasmussen A, Kelly JA, Adler A, Acevedo-Vazquez E, Cucho JM, la Torre IG, Cardiel MH, Miranda P, Catoggio L,.. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68(4):932-943.

Effects of pubertal exposure to dietary soy on estrogen receptor activity in the breast of cynomolgus macaques. Dewi FN, Wood CE, Willson CJ, Register TC, Lees CJ, Howard TD, Huang Z, Murphy SK, Tooze JA, Chou JW, Miller LD, Cline JM.. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2016;9(5):385-395.

Impact of genetic and epigenetic variations within the FADS cluster on the composition and metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in prostate cancer. Cui T, Hester AG, Seeds MC, Rahbar E, Howard TD, Sergeant S, Chilton FH.. Prostate. 2016;76(13):1182-1191.

Brain anatomy in Latino farmworkers exposed to pesticides and nicotine. Laurienti PJ, Burdette JH, Talton J, Pope CN, Summers P, Walker FO, Quandt SA, Lyday RG, Chen H, Howard TD, Arcury TA.. J Occup Environ Med. 2016;58(5):436-443.

Changes in DNA methylation over the growing season differ between North Carolina farmworkers and non-farmworkers. Howard TD, Hsu FC, Chen H, Quandt SA, Talton JW, Summers P, Arcury TA.. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2016;89(7):1103-1110.

Organophosphate pesticide urinary metabolites among Latino immigrants: North Carolina farmworkers and non-farmworkers compared. Arcury TA, Laurienti PJ, Chen H, Howard TD, Barr DB, Mora DC, Summers P, Quandt SA.. J Occup Environ Med. 2016;58(11):1079-1086.

Learning ability as a function of practice: does it apply to farmworkers?. Nguyen HT, Quandt SA, Summers P, Morgan TM, Chen H, Walker FO, Howard TD, Galvan L, Arcury TA.. J Occup Environ Med. 2015;57(6):676-681.

Alterations of a cellular cholesterol metabolism network are a molecular feature of obesity-related type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Ding J, Reynolds LM, Zeller T, Muller C, Mstat KL, Nicklas BJ, Kritchevsky SB, Huang Z, Fuente A, Soranzo N, Settlage RE, Chuang CC, Howard T, Xu N, Goodarzi MO, Ida Chen YD, Rotter JI, Siscovick DS, Parks JS, Murphy S, Jacobs DR Jr,.. Diabetes. 2015;64(10):3464-3474.

DNA methylation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor associations with cigarette smoking and subclinical atherosclerosis. Reynolds LM, Wan M, Ding J, Taylor JR, Lohman K, Su D, Bennett BD, Porter DK, Gimple R, Pittman GS, Wang X, Howard TD, Siscovick D, Psaty BM, Shea S, Burke GL, Jacobs DR Jr, Rich SS, Hixson JE, Stein JH, Stunnenberg H, Barr RG,.. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2015;8(5):707-716.

The RBMX gene as a candidate for the Shashi X-linked intellectual disability syndrome. Shashi V, Xie P, Schoch K, Goldstein DB, Howard TD, Berry MN, Schwartz CE, Cronin K, Sliwa S, Allen A, Need AC.. Clin Genet. 2015;88(4):386-390.

Prevalence of BAP1 germline mutations in asbestos-exposed malignant mesothelioma cases and controls [abstract]. Cheung M, Talarchek J, Howard SE, Howard T, Peng HZ, Hesdorffer M, Rauscher FJ, Ohar JA, Testa J.. Cancer Res. 2015;75(15 Suppl):2752.

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 1q22 as a susceptibility locus for intracerebral hemorrhage. Woo D, Falcone GJ, Devan WJ, Brown WM, Biffi A, Howard TD, Anderson CD, Brouwers HB, Valant V, Battey TW, Radmanesh F, Raffeld MR, Baedorf-Kassis S, Deka R, Woo JG, Martin LJ, Haverbusch M, Moomaw CJ, Sun G, Broderick JP, Flaherty ML,.. Am J Hum Genet. 2014;94(4):511-521.

DNA methylation in an enhancer region of the FADS cluster is associated with FADS activity in human liver. Howard TD, Mathias RA, Seeds MC, Herrington DM, Hixson JE, Shimmin LC, Hawkins GA, Sellers M, Ainsworth HC, Sergeant S, Miller LR, Chilton FH.. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e97510.

Lifetime and current pesticide exposure among Latino farmworkers in comparison to other Latino immigrants. Arcury TA, Nguyen HT, Summers P, Talton JW, Holbrook LC, [sic] [Holbrook LG], Walker FO, Chen H, Howard TD, Galvan L, Quandt SA.. Am J Ind Med. 2014;57(7):776-787.

Relationship between a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) cluster and eicosanoid generation in humans. Hester AG, Murphy RC, Uhlson CJ, Ivester P, Lee TC, Sergeant S, Miller LR, Howard TD, Mathias RA, Chilton FH.. J Biol Chem. 2014;289(32):22482-89.

DNA methylation in an enhancer region of the FADS cluster is associated with FADS activity in human liver [abstract]. Chilton F, Mathias R, Seeds M, Herrington D, Hixson J, Hawkins G, Sergeant S, Miller L, Howard T.. FASEB J. 2014;28(1 Suppl):373.8.

Associations between NOS1AP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and QT interval duration in four racial/ethnic groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Shah SA, Herrington DM, Howard TD, Divers J, Arnett DK, Burke GL, Kao WH, Guo X, Siscovick DS, Chakravarti A, Lima JA, Psaty BM, Tomaselli GF, Rich SS, Bowden DW, Post W.. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2013;18(1):29-40.

A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry. Monda KL, Chen GK, Taylor KC, Ng MCY, Liu Y, Freedman BI, Howard TD, Langefeld CD, Lohman K, Palmer ND, Shriner DA, Burke G, Ding J, et al.. Nat Genet. 2013;45(6):690-696.

Improved protein extraction and protein identification from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human aortas. Fu Z, Yan K, Rosenberg A, Jin Z, Crain B, Athas G, Heide RS, Howard T, Everett AD, Herrington D, Van Eyk JE.. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2013;7(3-4):217-224.

Genome-wide association study identifies TH1 pathway genes associated with lung function in asthmatic patients. Li X, Hawkins GA, Ampleford EJ, Moore WC, Li H, Hastie AT, Howard TD, Boushey HA, Busse WW, Calhoun WJ, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Israel E, Lemanske RF Jr, Szefler SJ, Wasserman SI, Wenzel SE, Peters SP, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(2):313-320.

Occupational health outcomes for workers in the agriculture, forestry and fishing sector: implications for immigrant workers in the southeastern US. Quandt SA, Kucera KL, Haynes C, Klein BG, Langley R, Agnew M, Levin JL, Howard T, Nussbaum MA.. Am J Ind Med. 2013;56(8):940-959.

Recruiting underserved mothers to medical research: findings from North Carolina. Spears CR, Sandberg JC, O'Neill JL, Grzywacz JG, Howard TD, Feldman SR, Arcury TA.. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2013;24(4):1801-1815.

Accounting for parental load and identification of multiple risk variants for anti-Ro congenital heart block through high-density genotyping of immune-related loci [abstract]. Clancy RM, Buyon JP, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Brucato A, Levesque K, Ramoni V, Marion MC, Comeau M, Sajuthi S, Ramos PS, Kimberly RP, Howard TD, Langefeld CD.. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65(Suppl 10):S1226.

Methylomics of gene expression in human monocytes. Liu Y, Ding J, Reynolds LM, Lohman K, Register TC, De La Fuente A, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, Cui W, Morris J, Smith SG, Barr RG, Kaufman JD, Burke GL, Post W, Shea S, McCall CE, Siscovick D, Jacobs DR Jr, Tracy RP,.. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22(24):5065-5074.

The role of copy number variation in African Americans with Type 2 diabetes-associated end stage renal disease. Cooke Bailey JN, Lu L, Chou JW, Xu J, McWilliams DR, Howard TD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Palmer ND.. J Mol Genet Med. 2013;7(2):61.

Association of DNA methylation and gene expression of the P2Y12 receptor: the Multi-Ethnic Study on Atherosclerosis [abstract]. Cammarata MW, Howard TD, Register TC, Shea SJ, Hawkins GA, Burke GL, Jacobs DR, Hoeschele I, Liu YM, Herrington DM.. Circulation. 2013;128(22 Suppl):A13189.

Common genetic variation in the 3'-BCL11B gene desert is associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and excess cardiovascular disease risk: the AortaGen Consortium. Mitchell GF, Verwoert GC, Tarasov KV, Isaacs A, Smith AV, Liu Y, Andrews JS, Howard TD, Herrington DM, Ding J, et al.. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2012;5(1):81-90.

The C11orf30-LRRC32 region is associated with total serum IgE levels in asthmatic patients [letter]. Li X, Ampleford EJ, Howard TD, Moore WC, Li H, Busse WW, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Fitzpatrick AM, Gaston B, Israel E, Jarjour NN, Teague WG, Wenzel SE, Hawkins GA, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(2):575-578.

Phenotype determinants for asthma severity clusters and genetic association for cluster-based asthma severity in Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) [abstract]. Li X, Moore WC, Li H, Ampleford EJ, Busse WW, Erzurum SC, Wenzel SE, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185(Meeting Abstracts):A2501.

The IL6R variation Asp358 Ala is a potential modifier of lung function in subjects with asthma. Hawkins GA, Robinson MB, Hastie AT, Li X, Li H, Moore WC, Howard TD, Busse WW, Erzurum SC, Wenzel SE, Peters SP, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(2):510-515.

Dysregulation of DGCR6 and DGCR6L: psychopathological outcomes in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chakraborty D, Bernal AJ, Schoch K, Howard TD, Ip EH, Hooper SR, Keshavan MS, Jirtle RL, Shashi V.. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2():e105.

Genome-wide association analysis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis identifies a new susceptibility locus at chromosomal region 3q13. Thompson SD, Marion MC, Sudman M, Ryan M, Tsoras M, Howard TD, Barnes MG, Ramos PS, Thomson W, Hinks A, Haas JP, Prahalad S, Bohnsack JF, Wise CA, Punaro M, Rose CD, Pajewski NM, Spigarelli M, Keddache M, Wagner M, Langefeld CD, Glass DN.. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(8):2781-2791.

Increased corpus callosum volume in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is associated with neurocognitive deficits and genetic polymorphisms. Shashi V, Francis A, Hooper SR, Kranz PG, Zapadka M, Schoch K, Ip E, Tandon N, Howard TD, Keshavan MS.. Eur J Hum Genet. 2012;20(10):1051-1057.

Genome-wide ancestry association testing identifies a common European variant on 6q14.1 as a risk factor for asthma in African American subjects. Torgerson DG, Capurso D, Ampleford EJ, Li X, Moore WC, Gignoux CR, Hu D, Eng C, Mathias RA, Busse WW, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Fitzpatrick AM, Gaston B, Israel E, Jarjour NN, Teague WG, Wenzel SE, Rodriguez-Santana JR,.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(3):622-629.

Quantitative criteria for improving performance of buccal DNA for high-throughput genetic analysis. Woo JG, Martin LJ, Ding L, Brown WM, Howard TD, Langefeld CD, Moomaw CJ, Haverbusch M, Sun G, Indugula SR, Cheng H, Deka R, Woo D.. BMC Genet. 2012;13():75.

Genome-wide association studies of asthma indicate opposite immunopathogenesis direction from autoimmune diseases. Li X, Ampleford EJ, Howard TD, Moore WC, Torgerson DG, Li H, Busse WW, Castro M, Erzurum SC, Israel E, Nicolae DL, Ober C, Wenzel SE, Hawkins GA, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(4):861-868.

Epigenetic profiling in monozygotic twins discordant for systemic lupus erythematosus reveals prominent hypomethylation of interferon-inducible genes [abstract]. Ramos PS, Howard TD, Marion MC, Sajuthi S, Kelly JA, Moser KL, Langefeld CD.. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(10 Suppl):S966.

Epigenetic changes in fibrosis and myocyte repair genes may contribute to pathogenesis in monozygotic twins discordant for cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus [abstract]. Ramos PS, Howard TD, Marion MC, Sajuthi S, Clancy RM, Buyon JP, Langefeld CD.. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64(10 Suppl):S137.

Importance of hedgehog interacting protein and other lung function genes in asthma. Li X, Howard TD, Moore WC, Ampleford EJ, Li H, Busse WW, Peters SP, Hawkins GA, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA, et al.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(6):1457-1465.

Common variants in the periostin gene influence development of atherosclerosis in young persons. Hixson JE, Shimmin LC, Montasser ME, Kim D-K, Zhong Y, Howard T, Langefeld C, Liu Y, Herrington D, et al.. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31(7):1661-1667.

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the TNF gene are associated with obesity-related phenotypes in vervet monkeys. Gray SB, Langefeld CD, Ziegler JT, Hawkins GA, Wagner JD, Howard TD.. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(7):1427-1432.

Job activities and respiratory symptoms among farmworkers in North Carolina. Mirabelli MC, Hoppin JA, Chatterjee AB, Isom S, Chen H, Grzywacz JG, Howard TD, Quandt SA, Vallejos QM, Arcury TA.. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2011;66(3):178-182.

Use of spermatozoal mRNA profiles to study genes affected by pesticide exposure in humans [abstract]. Hou L, Arcury T, Quandt S, Miller L, Howard T, Grzywacz J, Miller J, Yalcinkaya TM.. Reprod Sci. 2011;18(4 Suppl):175A.

Epigenetic changes with dietary soy in cynomolgus monkeys. Howard TD, Ho S-M, Zhang L, Chen J, Cui W, Slager R, Gray S, Hawkins GA, Medvedovic M, Wagner JD.. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e26791.

Genome-wide association study for coronary artery calcification with follow-up in myocardial infarction. O'Donnell CJ, Kavousi M, Smith AV, Kardia SLR, Feitosa MF, Hwang S-J, Sun YV, Herrington DM, Howard TD, Liu Y, et al.. Circulation. 2011;124(25):2855-2864.

Evidence of gray matter reduction and dysfunction in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Shashi V, Kwapil TR, Kaczorowski J, Berry MN, Santos CS, Howard TD, Goradia D, Prasad K, Vaibhav D, Rajarethinam R, et al.. Psychiatry Res. 2010;181(1):1-8.

Association of polymorphisms in genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism with plasma concentrations of remnant lipoproteins and HDL subpopulations before and after hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. Lamon-Fava S, Asztalos BF, Howard TD, Reboussin DM, Horvath KV, Schaefer EJ, Herrington DM.. Clin Endocrinol. 2010;72(2):169-175.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Quick Reference

Request an Appointment
New Patients


Existing patients may contact the clinic directly.
Find a Doctor Ways to Give
Five Wake Forest Baptist Specialties Earn U.S. News RankingsComprehensive Cancer Centers National Designation is RenewedMagnet Hospital Recognition2015 Best DoctorsJoint Commission Report

Disclaimer: The information on this website is for general informational purposes only and SHOULD NOT be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice, evaluation or care from your physician or other qualified health care provider.

© Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157. All Rights Reserved.