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Carl D. Langefeld, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Carl D. Langefeld, Ph.D.

Section Head,

Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-0013 | Department: 336-716-2011


Education & Training

  • Ph.D., University of Michigan/Ann Arbor, 1999


  • Am Diabetes Assn
  • Am Soc of Human Genetics
  • Biometric Society
  • Int'L Genetic Epidemiology Soc
Carl D. Langefeld, Ph.D.

Carl D. Langefeld, Ph.D.

Section Head, Biostatistical Sciences
Professor, Biostatistical Sciences

Research Interests

Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; African Americans; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
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Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-0013 | Department: 336-716-2011


Recent Publications

FGF23 concentration and APOL1 genotype are novel predictors of mortality in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Chan GC, Divers J, Russell GB, Langefeld CD, Wagenknecht LE, Hsu FC, Xu J, Smith SC, Palmer ND, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Register TC, Ma L, Carr JJ, Freedman BI.. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(1):178-186.

Genome-wide study of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue reveals novel sex-specific adiposity loci in Mexican Americans. Gao C, Langefeld CD, Ziegler JT, Taylor KD, Norris JM, Chen YI, Hellwege JN, Guo X, Allison MA, Speliotes EK, Rotter JI, Bowden DW, Wagenknecht LE, Palmer ND.. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018;26(1):202-212.

Genome-wide linkage and association analysis of cardiometabolic phenotypes in Hispanic Americans. Hellwege JN, Palmer ND, Dimitrov L, Keaton JM, Tabb KL, Sajuthi S, Taylor KD, Ng MC, Speliotes EK, Hawkins GA, Long J, Ida Chen YD, Lorenzo C, Norris JM, Rotter JI, Langefeld CD, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW.. J Hum Genet. 2017;62(2):175-184.

Genome-wide association of CKD progression: the chronic renal insufficiency cohort study. Parsa A, Kanetsky PA, Xiao R, Gupta J, Mitra N, Limou S, Xie D, Xu H, Anderson AH, Ojo A, Kusek JW, Lora CM, Hamm LL, He J, Sandholm N, Jeff J, Raj DE, Boger CA, Bottinger E, Salimi S, Parekh RS, Adler SG, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Groop PH,.. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28(3):923-934.

APOL1 renal-risk variants induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Ma L, Chou JW, Snipes JA, Bharadwaj MS, Craddock AL, Cheng D, Weckerle A, Petrovic S, Hicks PJ, Hemal AK, Hawkins GA, Miller LD, Molina AJ, Langefeld CD, Murea M, Parks JS, Freedman BI.. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28(4):1093-1105.

In vitro and in vivo assessment of direct effects of simulated solar and galactic cosmic radiation on human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Rodman C, Almeida-Porada G, George SK, Moon J, Soker S, Pardee T, Beaty M, Guida P, Sajuthi SP, Langefeld CD, Walker SJ, Wilson PF, Porada CD.. Leukemia. 2017;31(6):1398-1407.

Genetic architecture distinguishes systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis from other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: clinical and therapeutic implications. Ombrello MJ, Arthur VL, Remmers EF, Hinks A, Tachmazidou I, Grom AA, Foell D, Martini A, Gattorno M, Ozen S, Prahalad S, Zeft AS, Bohnsack JF, Ilowite NT, Mellins ED, Russo R, Len C, Hilario MO, Oliveira S, Yeung RS, Rosenberg AM, Wedderburn LR,.. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76(5):906-913.

Genetic variation at 16q24.2 is associated with small vessel stroke. Traylor M, Malik R, Nalls MA, Cotlarciuc I, Radmanesh F, Thorleifsson G, Hanscombe KB, Langefeld C, Saleheen D, Rost NS, Yet I, Spector TD, Bell JT, Hannon E, Mill J, Chauhan G, Debette S, Bis JC, Longstreth WT Jr, Ikram MA, Launer LJ, Seshadri S,.. Ann Neurol. 2017;81(3):383-394.

Multiethnic genome-wide meta-analysis of ectopic fat depots identifies loci associated with adipocyte development and differentiation. Chu AY, Deng X, Fisher VA, Drong A, Zhang Y, Feitosa MF, Liu CT, Weeks O, Choh AC, Duan Q, Dyer TD, Eicher JD, Guo X, Heard-Costa NL, Kacprowski T, Kent JW Jr, Lange LA, Liu X, Lohman K, Lu L, Mahajan A, O'Connell JR, Parihar A, Peralta JM,.. Nat Genet. 2017;49(1):125-130.

Ischemic lesions, blood pressure dysregulation, and poor outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage. Kidwell CS, Rosand J, Norato G, Dixon S, Worrall BB, James ML, Elkind MS, Flaherty ML, Osborne J, Vashkevich A, Langefeld CD, Moomaw CJ, Woo D.. Neurology. 2017;88(8):782-788.

Analysis of whole exome sequencing with cardiometabolic traits using family-based linkage and association in the IRAS Family Study. Tabb KL, Hellwege JN, Palmer ND, Dimitrov L, Sajuthi S, Taylor KD, Ng MC, Hawkins GA, Chen YI, Brown WM, McWilliams D, Williams A, Lorenzo C, Norris JM, Long J, Rotter JI, Curran JE, Blangero J, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW.. Ann Hum Genet. 2017;81(2):49-58.

Bladder capacity is a biomarker for a bladder-centric versus systemic manifestation in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Walker SJ, Zambon J, Andersson KE, Langefeld C, Matthews CA, Badlani G, Bowman H, Evans RJ.. J Urol. 2017;198(2):369-374.

Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height. Marouli E, Graff M, Medina-Gomez C, Lo KS, Wood AR, Kjaer TR, Fine RS, Lu Y, Schurmann C, Highland HM, Rueger S, Thorleifsson G, Justice AE, Lamparter D, Stirrups KE, Turcot V, Young KL, Winkler TW, Esko T, Karaderi T, Locke AE, Masca NG,.. Nature. 2017;542(7640):186-190.

Association between telomere length and risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases: a Mendelian randomization study. Haycock PC, Burgess S, Nounu A, Zheng J, Okoli GN, Bowden J, Wade KH, Timpson NJ, Evans DM, Willeit P, Aviv A, Gaunt TR, Hemani G, Mangino M, Ellis HP, Kurian KM, Pooley KA, Eeles RA, Lee JE, Fang S, Chen WV, Law MH, Bowdler LM,.. JAMA Oncol. 2017;3(5):636-651.

A genome-wide linkage and association analysis of imputed insertions and deletions with cardiometabolic phenotypes in Mexican Americans: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Gao C, Hsu FC, Dimitrov LM, Okut H, Chen YI, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Palmer ND.. Genet Epidemiol. 2017;41(4):353-362.

A null variant in the apolipoprotein L3 gene is associated with non-diabetic nephropathy. Skorecki KL, Lee JH, Langefeld CD, Rosset S, Tzur S, Wasser WG, Shemer R, Hawkins GA, Divers J, Parekh RS, Li M, Sampson MG, Kretzler M, Pollak MR, Shah S, Blackler D, Nichols B, Wilmot M, Alper SL, Freedman BI, Friedman DJ.. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2017;():.

Alcohol use and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Chen CJ, Brown WM, Moomaw CJ, Langefeld CD, Osborne J, Worrall BB, Woo D, Koch S.. Neurology. 2017;88(21):2043-2051.

The SLCO1B1*14 allele is associated with poor response to subcutaneous methotrexate in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis [abstract]. Moncrieffe H, Ramsey LB, Sudman M, Gottlieb B, Langefeld CD, Lovell D, Thompson SD.. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69(Suppl 4):48-50.

The TMAO-producing enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 regulates obesity and the beiging of white adipose tissue. Schugar RC, Shih DM, Warrier M, Helsley RN, Burrows A, Ferguson D, Brown AL, Gromovsky AD, Heine M, Chatterjee A, Li L, Li XS, Wang Z, Willard B, Meng Y, Kim H, Che N, Pan C, Lee RG, Crooke RM, Graham MJ, Morton RE, Langefeld CD,.. Cell Rep. 2017;19(12):2451-2461.

Genetic epidemiology in kidney disease. Ainsworth HC, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI.. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2017;32(Suppl 2):159-169.

CETP genetic variants that increase HDL raise Intracerebral hemorrhage risk [abstract]. Anderson C, Falcone G, Peloso G, Langefeld C, Abecasis G, Kathiresan S, Woo D, Rosand J.. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017;37(Suppl 1):112-113.

Race/ethnic variation of Apolipoprotein E alleles for lobar intracerebral hemorrhage [abstract]. Woo D, Sekar P Rosand J, Osborne J, Kittner S, Langefeld C, Moomaw C, Flaherty M, Anderson C.. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017;37(Suppl 1):117.

Dense genotyping of immune-related regions identifies loci for rheumatoid arthritis risk and damage in African Americans. Danila MI, Laufer VA, Reynolds RJ, Yan Q, Liu N, Gregersen PK, Lee A, Kern M, Langefeld CD, Arnett DK, Bridges SL Jr.. Mol Med. 2017;23():177-187.

Variability in the use of platelet transfusion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage: observations from the Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage study. Guerrero WR, Gonzales NR, Sekar P, Kawano-Castillo J, Moomaw CJ, Worrall BB, Langefeld CD, Martini SR, Flaherty ML, Sheth KN, Osborne J, Woo D.. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017;26(9):1974-1980.

Aggressiveness of care following intracerebral hemorrhage in women and men. Guha R, Boehme A, Demel SL, Li JJ, Cai X, James ML, Koch S, Langefeld CD, Moomaw CJ, Osborne J, Sekar P, Sheth KN, Woodrich E, Worrall BB, Woo D, Chaturvedi S.. Neurology. 2017;89(4):349-354.

Effects of weight-based ultrafiltration rate limits on intradialytic hypotension in hemodialysis. Pirkle JL Jr, Comeau ME, Langefeld CD, Russell GB, Balderston SS, Freedman BI, Burkart JM.. Hemodial Int. 2017;():.

Use of statins and outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage patients. Siddiqui FM, Langefeld CD, Moomaw CJ, Comeau ME, Sekar P, Rosand J, Kidwell CS, Martini S, Osborne JL, Stutzman S, Hall C, Woo D.. Stroke. 2017;48(8):2098-2104.

Type 2 diabetes variants disrupt function of SLC16A11 through two distinct mechanisms. Rusu V, Hoch E, Mercader JM, Tenen DE, Gymrek M, Hartigan CR, DeRan M, von Grotthuss M, Fontanillas P, Spooner A, Guzman G, Deik AA, Pierce KA, Dennis C, Clish CB, Carr SA, Wagner BK, Schenone M, Ng MCY, Chen BH, Centeno-Cruz F, Zerrweck C,.. Cell. 2017;170(1):.

Genomics in rheumatic diseases: hope for the future [editorial]. Bridges SL Jr, Langefeld CD.. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2017;43(3):15-16.

Factors considered by clinicians when prognosticating intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes. Hwang DY, Chu SY, Dell CA, Sparks MJ, Watson TD, Langefeld CD, Comeau ME, Rosand J, Battey TWK, Koch S, Perez ML, James ML, McFarlin J, Osborne JL, Woo D, Kittner SJ, Sheth KN.. Neurocrit Care. 2017;27(3):316-325.

Assessment of the interaction of age and sex on 90-day outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. James ML, Langefeld CD, Sekar P, Moomaw CJ, Elkind MSV, Worrall BB, Sheth KN, Martini SR, Osborne J, Woo D.. Neurology. 2017;89(10):1011-1019.

Integrative approaches to understanding the pathogenic role of genetic variation in rheumatic diseases. Laufer VA, Chen JY, Langefeld CD, Bridges SL Jr.. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2017;43(3):449-466.

Transancestral mapping and genetic load in systemic lupus erythematosus. Langefeld CD, Ainsworth HC, Cunninghame Graham DS, Kelly JA, Comeau ME, Marion MC, Howard TD, Ramos PS, Croker JA, Morris DL, Sandling JK, Almlof JC, Acevedo-Vasquez EM, Alarcon GS, Babini AM, Baca V, Bengtsson AA, Berbotto GA,.. Nat Commun. 2017;8():16021.

Genome-wide association meta-analysis reveals novel juvenile idiopathic arthritis susceptibility loci. McIntosh LA, Marion MC, Sudman M, Comeau ME, Becker ML, Bohnsack JF, Fingerlin TE, Griffin TA, Haas JP, Lovell DJ, Maier LA, Nigrovic PA, Prahalad S, Punaro M, Rose CD, Wallace CA, Wise CA, Moncrieffe H, Howard TD, Langefeld CD, Thompson SD.. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69(11):2222-2232.

CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 variants and effect of tamoxifen on breast cancer recurrence: analysis of the International Tamoxifen Pharmacogenomics Consortium dataset. Damkier P, Kjaersgaard A, Barker KA, Cronin-Fenton D, Crawford A, Hellberg Y, Janssen EAM, Langefeld C, Ahern TP, Lash TL.. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):7727.

Genetic regulation of adipose tissue transcript expression is involved in modulating serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol. Sajuthi SP, Sharma NK, Comeau ME, Chou JW, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Parks JS, Das SK.. Gene. 2017;632():50-58.

Mutational landscapes of smoking-related cancers in Caucasians and African Americans: precision oncology perspectives at Wake Forest Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Center. Kytola V, Topaloglu U, Miller LD, Bitting RL, Goodman MM, D Agostino RB Jr, Desnoyers RJ, Albright C, Yacoub G, Qasem SA, DeYoung B, Thorsson V, Shmulevich I, Yang M, Shcherban A, Pagni M, Liu L, Nykter M, Chen K, Hawkins GA, Grant SC,.. Theranostics. 2017;7(11):2914-2923.

The autoimmune genetic architecture of childhood-onset rheumatoid arthritis [abstract]. Hinks A, Marion MC, Cobb J, Sudman M, Ainsworth H, Comeau M, Bohnsack J, Wedderburn LR, Haas JP, Videm V, Rygg M, Nordal E, Yeung RSM, Rosenberg AM, Langefeld CD, Thompson SD, Thomson W, Prahalad S.. Rheumatology. 2017;56(Suppl 2):44-45.

Uncovering the DNA methylation landscape in key regulatory regions within the FADS cluster. Rahbar E, Ainsworth HC, Howard TD, Hawkins GA, Ruczinski I, Mathias R, Seeds MC, Sergeant S, Hixson JE, Herrington DM, Langefeld CD, Chilton FH.. PLoS One. 2017;12(9):e0180903.

Genetic variants influencing elevated myeloperoxidase levels increase risk of stroke. Phuah CL, Dave T, Malik R, Raffeld MR, Ayres AM, Goldstein JN, Viswanathan A, Greenberg SM, Jagiella JM, Hansen BM, Norrving B, Jimenez-Conde J, Roquer J, Pichler A, Enzinger C, Montaner J, Fernandez-Cadenas I, Lindgren A, Slowik A, Schmidt R,.. Brain. 2017;140(10):2663-2672.

Early-life environmental exposures interact with genetic susceptibility variants in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Jensen ET, Kuhl JT, Martin LJ, Langefeld CD, Dellon ES, Rothenberg ME.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;():.

Genetic architecture of lipid traits in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Graff M, Emery LS, Justice AE, Parra E, Below JE, Palmer ND, Gao C, Duan Q, Valladares-Salgado A, Cruz M, Morrison AC, Boerwinkle E, Whitsel EA, Kooperberg C, Reiner A, Li Y, Rodriguez CJ, Talavera GA, Langefeld CD, Wagenknecht LE, Norris JM,.. Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16(1):200.

Association of natural killer cell ligand polymorphism HLA-C Asn80Lys with the development of anti-SSA/Ro-associated congenital heart block. Ainsworth HC, Marion MC, Bertero T, Brucato A, Cimaz R, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Fredi M, Gaffney P, Kelly J, Levesque K, Maltret A, Morel N, Ramoni V, Ruffatti A, Langefeld CD, Buyon JP, Clancy RM.. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69(11):2170-2174.

Towards precision medicine in rheumatoid arthritis (RA): trans-ethnic analysis and prioritization of SNPs in the AFF3 locus [abstract]. Laufer VA, Danila MI, Reynolds RJ, Kottyan LC, Kaufman K, Harley JB, Langefeld CD, Arnett D, Bridges SL.. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69(Suppl 10):2429.

Preferential association of a functional variant in complement receptor 2 with antibodies to double-stranded DNA. Zhao J, Giles BM, Taylor RL, Yette GA, Lough KM, Ng HL, Abraham LJ, Wu H, Kelly JA, Glenn SB, Adler AJ, Williams AH, Comeau ME, Ziegler JT, Marion M, Alarcon-Riquelme ME, Alarcon GS, Anaya JM, Bae SC, Kim D, Lee HS, Criswell LA, Freedman BI, Gilkeson GS,.. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75(1):242-252.

Clinician judgment vs formal scales for predicting intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes. Hwang DY, Dell CA, Sparks MJ, Watson TD, Langefeld CD, Comeau ME, Rosand J, Battey TW, Koch S, Perez ML, James ML, McFarlin J, Osborne JL, Woo D, Kittner SJ, Sheth KN.. Neurology. 2016;86(2):126-133.

X chromosome dose and sex bias in autoimmune diseases: increased prevalence of 47,XXX in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome. Liu K, Kurien BT, Zimmerman SL, Kaufman KM, Taft DH, Kottyan LC, Lazaro S, Weaver CA, Ice JA, Adler AJ, Chodosh J, Radfar L, Rasmussen A, Stone DU, Lewis DM, Li S, Koelsch KA, Igoe A, Talsania M, Kumar J, Maier-Moore JS, Harris VM,.. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68(5):1290-1300.

Genome-wide association study in an Amerindian ancestry population reveals novel systemic lupus erythematosus risk loci and the role of European admixture. Alarcon-Riquelme ME, Ziegler JT, Molineros J, Howard TD, Moreno-Estrada A, Sanchez-Rodriguez E, Ainsworth HC, Ortiz-Tello P, Comeau ME, Rasmussen A, Kelly JA, Adler A, Acevedo-Vazquez E, Cucho JM, la Torre IG, Cardiel MH, Miranda P, Catoggio L,.. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68(4):932-943.

APOL1 genotype and kidney transplantation outcomes from deceased African American donors. Freedman BI, Pastan SO, Israni AK, Schladt D, Julian BA, Gautreaux MD, Hauptfeld V, Bray RA, Gebel HM, Kirk AD, Gaston RS, Rogers J, Farney AC, Orlando G, Stratta RJ, Mohan S, Ma L, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Hicks PJ, Palmer ND,.. Transplantation. 2016;100(1):194-202.

Decreased SMG7 expression associates with lupus-risk variants and elevated antinuclear antibody production. Deng Y, Zhao J, Sakurai D, Sestak AL, Osadchiy V, Langefeld CD, Kaufman KM, Kelly JA, James JA, Petri MA, Bae SC, Alarcon-Riquelme ME, Alarcon GS, Anaya JM, Criswell LA, Freedman BI, Kamen DL, Gilkeson GS, Jacob CO, Merrill JT, Gaffney PM, Sivils KM,.. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75(11):2007-2013.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Carl D. Langefeld, Ph.D.

Carl D. Langefeld, Ph.D.

Section Head, Biostatistical Sciences
Professor, Biostatistical Sciences

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