Carolanne E. Milligan, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Carolanne E. Milligan, Ph.D.


Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-0499 | Department: 336-716-0499


Related Links

Education & Training

  • B.S., Saint Joseph's University, 1985
  • Ph.D., Medical College of Pennsylvania, 1992
  • Fellowship, University of Massachusetts-Am, 1995


  • Society for Neuroscience
  • Western Nc Chpt Soc For Neuros
Carolanne E. Milligan, Ph.D.

Carolanne E. Milligan, Ph.D.

Professor, Neurobiology & Anatomy
Comprehensive Cancer Center
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Maya Angelou Center for Health Equity

Research Interests

aging, cancer/oncogenesis, cell growth, differentiation,d, degenerative disorders, education/training (all f, t,, epidemiology, genomics and proteomics, minority health issues, neurosciences/behavior, rare diseases, temporary, pain, hormones/cytokines/signalling, cross(mult/tnslat/inter)discip, immunology/allergy/inflammatio

Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-0499 | Department: 336-716-0499


Related Links

Recent Publications

Silverstein MG, Ordanes D, Wylie AT, Files DC, Milligan C, Presley TD, Kavanagh K. Inducing muscle heat shock protein 70 improves insulin sensitivity and muscular performance in aged mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015;70(7):800-808.

Lampl T, Crum JA, Davis TA, Milligan C, Del Gaizo Moore V. Isolation and functional analysis of mitochondria from cultured cells and mouse tissue [video article]. J Vis Exp. 2015;(97):.

Gmeiner WH, Lema-Tome C, Gibo D, Jennings-Gee J, Milligan C, Debinski W. Selective anti-tumor activity of the novel fluoropyrimidine polymer F10 towards G48a orthotopic GBM tumors. J Neurooncol. 2014;116(3):447-454.

Gould TW, Milligan CE. Neuronal death and rescue: neurotropic factors and anti-apoptotic mechanisms In: Selzer ME, Clarke S, Cohen LG, Kwakkel G, Miller RH, eds. Textbook of neural repair and rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;2014: 255-273.

Oppenheim RW, Milligan CE, von Bartheld CS. Programmed cell death and neurotrophic factors In: Squire LR, Berg D, Bloom FE, Du Lac S, Ghosh A, Spitzer NC, eds. Fundamental neuroscience. 4th ed. Boston: Elsevier/Academic Press;2013: 405-435.

Vinsant S, Mansfield C, Jimenez-Moreno R, Moore VDG, Yoshikawa M, Hampton TG, Prevette D, Caress J, Oppenheim RW, Milligan C. Characterization of early pathogenesis in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS: part I, background and methods. Brain Behav. 2013;3(4):335-350.

Vinsant S, Mansfield C, Jimenez-Moreno R, Moore VDG, Yoshikawa M, Hampton TG, Prevette D, Caress J, Oppenheim RW, Milligan C. Characterization of early pathogenesis in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS: part II, results and discussion. Brain Behav. 2013;3(4):431-457.

Milligan C, Strupe J, Mansfield C, Robinson M, Oppenheim R, Rodrigues AZ, Kudo R. Muscle fiber-type regulation of maintenance of neuromuscular junction innervation [abstract]. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 2013;():243.19.

Taylor AR, Gifondorwa DJ, Robinson MB, Strupe JL, Prevette D, Johnson JE, Hempstead B, Oppenheim RW, Milligan CE. Motoneuron programmed cell death in response to proBDNF. Dev Neurobiol. 2012;72(5):699-712.

Gifondorwa DJ, Jimenz-Moreno R, Hayes CD, Rouhani H, Robinson MB, Strupe JL, Caress J, Milligan C. Administration of recombinant heat shock protein 70 delays peripheral muscle denervation in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurol Res Int. 2012;2012():170426.

Hicks AN, Lorenzetti D, Gilley J, Lu B, Andersson KE, Miligan C, Overbeek PA, Oppenheim R, Bishop CE. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (Nmnat2) regulates axon integrity in the mouse embryo. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47869.

Sherman A, Bowser R, Grasso D, Power B, Milligan C, Jaffa M, Cudkowicz M. Proposed BioRepository platform solution for the ALS research community. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2011;12(1):11-16.

Robinson MB, Gifondorwa DJ, Milligan C. Mechanisms of the motoneuron stress response and its relevance in neurodegeneration In: McNeill AS, ed. Neurodegeneration: theory, disorders, and treatments. New York: Nova Biomedical;2011: 45-62.

Milligan C, Gifondorwa D. Isolation and culture of postnatal spinal motoneurons. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;793(Pt 2):77-85.

Oppenheim RW, Milligan C, Sun W. Programmed cell death during nervous system development: mechanisms, regulation, functions, and implications for neurobehavioral ontogeny In: Blumberg MS, Freeman JH, Robinson SR, eds. Oxford handbook of developmental behavioral neuroscience. New York: Oxford University Press;2010: 76-107.

Markert CD, Kim E, Gifondorwa DJ, Childers MK, Milligan CE. A single-dose resveratrol treatment in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Med Food. 2010;13(5):1081-1085.

Oppenheim R, Milligan C. Early changes in ALS: where does the end begin? [abstract]. J Physiol Sci. 2010;60(Suppl 1):S22.

Hernandez S, Texido L, Caldero J, Ciutat D, Piedrafita L, Casanovas A, Caress J, Prevette D, Oppenheim RW, Milligan C, et al. Increased intramuscular nerve branching and inhibition of programmed cell death of chick embryo motoneurons by immunoglobulins from patients with motoneuron disease. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;229(1-2):157-168.

Oppenheim R, Milligan C. Programmed cell death In: Squire LR, ed. Encyclopedia of neuroscience, vol 7. Berlin: Elsevier/Academic Press;2009: 1117-1124.

Yoshikawa M, Vinsant S, Mansfield CM, Gifondorwa DJ, Pace L, Messi LM [sic] [Messi ML], Caress J, Cartwright M, Delbono O, Oppenheim RW, Milligan CE, et al. Identification of changes in muscle, neuromuscular junctions and spinal cord at early pre-symptomatic stages in the mutant SOD1 mouse model of ALS may provide novel insight for diagnosis and treatment development [abstract]. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 2009;2009(Neuroscience Meeting Planner):.

Hayes CD, Milligan CE. Motorneuron maintenance in the absence of the JNK1 or JNK2 isoforms [abstract]. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 2009;2009(Neuroscience Meeting Planner):.

Robinson MB, Taylor AR, Gifondorwa DJ, Tytell M, Milligan CE. Exogenous Hsc70, but not thermal preconditioning, confers protection to motoneurons subjected to oxidative stress. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68(1):1-17.

Tytell M, Robinson MB, Milligan CE. Release of heat shock proteins and their effects when in the extracellular space in the nervous system In: Asea AAA, Brown IR, eds. Heat shock proteins and the brain: implications for neurodegenerative diseases and neuroprotection. Dordrecht (Netherlands): Springer;2008: 257-272.

Macosko JC, Newbern JM, Rockford J, Chisena EN, Brown CM, Holzwarth GM, Milligan CE. Fewer active motors per vesicle may explain slowed vesicle transport in chick motoneurons after three days in vitro. Brain Res. 2008;1211():6-12.

Taylor AR, Gifondorwa DJ, Newbern JM, Robinson MB, Strupe JL, Prevette D, Oppenheim RW, Milligan CE. Astrocyte and muscle-derived secreted factors differentially regulate motoneuron survival. J Neurosci. 2007;27(3):634-644.

Taylor AR, Robinson MB, Milligan CE. In vitro methods to prepare astrocyte and motoneuron cultures for the investigation of potential in vivo interactions. Nat Protoc. 2007;2(6):1499-1507.

Newbern J, Taylor A, Robinson M, Lively MO, Milligan CE. c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling regulates events associated with both health and degeneration in motoneurons. Neuroscience. 2007;147(3):680-692.

Taylor AR, Robinson MB, Gifondorwa DJ, Tytell M, Milligan CE. Regulation of heat shock protein 70 release in astrocytes: role of signaling kinases. Dev Neurobiol. 2007;67(13):1815-1829.

Gifondorwa DJ, Robinson MB, Hayes CD, Taylor AR, Prevette DM, Oppenheim RW, Caress J, Milligan CE. Exogenous delivery of heat shock protein 70 increases lifespan in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurosci. 2007;27(48):13173-80.

Hayes CD, Gifondorwa DJ, Herdegen TM, Milligan CE. Absence of individual JNK isoforms results in altered spinal motoneuron programmed cell death [abstract]. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 2007;2007(Abstr Viewer):.

Gould TW, Buss RR, Vinsant S, Prevette D, Sun W, Knudson CM, Milligan CE, Oppenheim RW. Complete dissociation of motor neuron death from motor dysfunction by Bax deletion in a mouse model of ALS. J Neurosci. 2006;26(34):8774-8786.

Taylor AR, Robinson MB, Prevette D, Gifondorwa D, Newbern JM, Strupe J, Oppenheim RW, Milligan CE. Astrocyte- and muscle-secreated factors differentially regulate motoneuron survival [abstract]. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 2006;2006(Abstr Viewer):.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Quick Reference

Request an Appointment
New Patients


Existing patients may contact the clinic directly.
Find a Doctor Ways to Give
USNWR 2015-2016Magnet Hospital RecognitionConsumer Choice2015 Best DoctorsJoint Commission Report

Disclaimer: The information on this website is for general informational purposes only and SHOULD NOT be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice, evaluation or care from your physician or other qualified health care provider.