Stephen R. Rapp, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

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Stephen R. Rapp, Ph.D.



Clinical Interests

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Geriatrics, Depression, Stress

Contact Information

Returning Patient Appointments: 336-716-4551
Department: 336-716-4551


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Additional Languages


Education & Training

  • B.A., Bradley University, 1970
  • M.A., Bradley University, 1976
  • Ph.D., West Virginia University, 1983
  • Residency, Psychology, University of Mississippi Medi, 1983
  • Fellowship, Yale University School of Medi, 1990


  • North Carolina Psychological A
  • Soc Clin Trials
  • Am Psychological Assn
  • Gerontological Society Of Amer
  • Int'L Psychogeriatric Assoc

NPI Number

  • 1659355618
Stephen R. Rapp, Ph.D.

Doctor Rating

No Rating Available
Why No Ratings?

Stephen R. Rapp, Ph.D.

Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Social Sciences & Health Policy

Research Interests

Cognition Disorders; Dementia; Cognition; Postmenopause; Quality of Life
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Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-6995 | Department: 336-716-4551


Recent Publications

A study of donepezil in female breast cancer survivors with self-reported cognitive dysfunction 1 to 5 years following adjuvant chemotherapy. Lawrence JA, Griffin L, Balcueva EP, Groteluschen DL, Samuel TA, Lesser GJ, Naughton MJ, Case LD, Shaw EG, Rapp SR.. J Cancer Surviv. 2016;10(1):176-184.

Living long and living well: results from the Women's Health Initiative [editorial]. Rapp SR, LaCroix AZ, Shumaker SA.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71(Suppl 1):S100-S102.

Living well after 80 years: an introduction to the special issue [editorial]. Rapp SR, LaCroix AZ, Shumaker SA.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71(Suppl 1):S1-S2.

Predictors of optimal cognitive aging in 80+ women: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Goveas JS, Rapp SR, Hogan PE, Driscoll I, Tindle HA, Smith JC, Kesler SR, Zaslavsky O, Rossom RC, Ockene JK, Yaffe K, Manson JE, Resnick SM, Espeland MA.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71(Suppl 1):S62-S71.

Feasibility of self-administered sleep assessment in older women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Vaughan L, Redline S, Stone K, Ulanski J, Rueschman M, Dailey H, Rapp SR, Snively BM, Baker LD, Shumaker SA.. Sleep Breath. 2016;20(3):1079-1091.

Driving patterns and adverse driving events in a nationwide cohort of older women [abstract]. Marottoli R, Dugan E, Naughton M, Rapp S, Snively B, Vaughan L.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016;64(Suppl 1):S170.

Antidepressant use and subclinical measures of atherosclerosis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Camacho A, McClelland RL, Delaney JA, Allison MA, Psaty BM, Rifkin DE, Rapp SR, Szklo M, Stein MB, Criqui MH.. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2016;36(4):340-346.

Loneliness, depression, and inflammation: evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Mezuk B, Choi M, DeSantis AS, Rapp SR, Diez Roux AV, Seeman T.. PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0158056.

Long-term effects on cognitive trajectories of postmenopausal hormone therapy in two age groups. Espeland MA, Rapp SR, Manson JE, Goveas JS, Shumaker SA, Hayden KM, Weitlauf JC, Gaussoin SA, Baker LD, Padula CB, Hou L, Resnick SM.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;():.

Effects of longitudinal glucose exposure on cognitive and physical function: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory study. Beavers KM, Leng I, Rapp SR, Miller ME, Houston DK, Marsh AP, Hire DG, Baker LD, Bray GA, Blackburn GL, Hergenroeder AL, Jakicic JM, Johnson KC, Korytkowski MT, Dorsten BV, Kritchevsky SB.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016;():.

Hippocampal dosimetry predicts for cancer-related cognitive impairment in patients treated with cranial radiation therapy: dosimetric results of a prospective clinical trial [abstract]. Okoukoni C, McTyre E, Peiffer AM, Hinson W, Strowd RE, Rapp S, Chan MD.. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016;96(2 Suppl):S90-S91.

Sociodemographic correlates of cognition in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Fitzpatrick AL, Rapp SR, Luchsinger J, Hill-Briggs F, Alonso A, Gottesman R, Lee H, Carnethon M, Liu K, Williams K, Sharrett AR, Frazier-Wood A, Lyketsos C, Seeman T.. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;23(7):684-697.

Change in neighborhood environments and depressive symptoms in New York City: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Mair C, Diez Roux AV, Golden SH, Rapp S, Seeman T, Shea S.. Health Place. 2015;32():93-98.

Donepezil for irradiated brain tumor survivors: a phase III randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Rapp SR, Case LD, Peiffer A, Naughton MM [sic] [Naughton MJ], Chan MD, Stieber VW, Moore DF Jr, Falchuk SC, Piephoff JV, Edenfield WJ, Giguere JK, Loghin ME, Shaw EG.. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(15):1653-1659.

Phase II double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study of armodafinil for brain radiation-induced fatigue. Page BR, Shaw EG, Lu L, Bryant D, Grisell D, Lesser GJ, Monitto DC, Naughton MJ, Rapp SR, Savona SR, Shah S, Case D, Chan MD.. Neuro Oncol. 2015;17(10):1393-1401.

Factors associated with nursing home admission after stroke in older women. Bell CL, LaCroix AZ, Desai M, Hedlin H, Rapp SR, Cene C, Savla J, Shippee T, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Stefanick ML, Masaki K.. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015;24(10):2329-2337.

Driving with mild cognitive impairment or dementia: cognitive test performance and proxy report of daily life function in older women. Vaughan L, Hogan PE, Rapp SR, Dugan E, Marottoli RA, Snively BM, Shumaker SA, Sink KM.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015;63(9):1774-1782.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors [abstract]. Gifford A, Lawrence J, Case D, Rapp S, Baker L, Craft S, Groteluschen DL, Klepin H, Lesser G, Naughton MJ, Sachs B, Samuel TA, Sink K, Williamson, J, Shaw EG.. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(15 Suppl):9560.

Effect of a 24-month physical activity intervention vs health education on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults: the LIFE randomized trial. Sink KM, Espeland MA, Castro CM, Church T, Cohen R, Dodson JA, Guralnik J, Hendrie HC, Jennings J, Katula J, Lopez OL, McDermott MM, Pahor M, Reid KF, Rushing J, Verghese J, Rapp S, Williamson JD.. JAMA. 2015;314(8):781-790.

Assessing everyday cognitive functioning with tablet-based simulations: the simbac system [abstract]. Rapp S, Sink KM, Barnard R, Wilson V, Chamberlain D, Mann E, Ip E.. Gerontologist. 2015;55(Suppl 2):392.

Cognitive factors associated with adherence to oral antiestrogen therapy: results from the cognition in the study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (Co-STAR) study. Klepin HD, Geiger AM, Bandos H, Costantino JP, Rapp SR, Sink KM, Lawrence JA, Atkinson HH, Espeland MA.. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2014;7(1):161-168.

The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in 8,724 SPRINT participants [abstract]. Sink KM, Chelune G, Coker L, Gaussoin S, Lerner A, Nichols L, Pajewski NM, Rapp S, Wadley V, Williamson J.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014;62(Suppl 1):S9-S10.

Long-term impact of behavioral weight loss intervention on cognitive function. Espeland MA, Rapp SR, Bray GA, Houston DK, Johnson KC, Kitabchi AE, Hergenroeder AL, Williamson J, Jakicic JM, van Dorsten B, Kritchevsky SB.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(9):1101-1108.

The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics. Sink KM, Espeland MA, Rushing J, Castro CM, Church TS, Cohen R, Gill TM, Henkin L, Jennings JM, Kerwin DR, Manini TM, Myers V, Pahor M, Reid KF, Woolard N, Rapp SR, Williamson JD.. Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9():1425-1436.

Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and brain volume in older adult women. Vaughan L, Erickson KI, Espeland MA, Smith JC, Tindle HA, Rapp SR.. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2014;69(6):826-836.

Incidence of mild cognitive impairment in irradiated brain tumor survivors [abstract]. Shaw E, McKee N, Case D, Lawrence J, Lesser G, Naughton M, Peiffer A, Loghin M, Giguere J, Stieber V, Rapp S.. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(Suppl 1):S162-S163.

L-arginine - based nutritional supplement did not improve erectile function or quality of life in prostate cancer survivors previously treated with radiation therapy: results of CCOP research base protocol 98110-A randomized phase 2 dose. Urbanic JJ, Case D, Lesser G, Enevold G, Naughton M, Danhauer S, Rapp S, Vitolins M, Johnson S, McCollough M, Duncan D, Papagikos M, Shaw EG.. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(Suppl 1):S86-S87.

A candidate gene study of genetic risk for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in women aged greater than 65 years: results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) [abstract]. Driscoll I, Snively BM, Espeland MA, Shumaker SA, Rapp SR, Goveas JS, Casanova R, Wactawski-Wende J, Manson JE, Rossom RC, Brooks J, Hernandez DG, Singleton AB, Resnick SM.. Alzheimers Dement. 2014;10(4 Suppl):P787-P788.

Neuroanatomical target theory as a predictive model for radiation-induced cognitive decline. Peiffer AM, Leyrer CM, Greene-Schloesser DM, Shing E, Kearns WT, Hinson WH, Tatter SB, Ip EH, Rapp SR, Robbins ME [deceased], Shaw EG, Chan MD.. Neurology. 2013;80(8):747-753.

The rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Younger Women (WHIMS-Y). Vaughan L, Espeland MA, Snively B, Shumaker SA, Rapp SR, Shupe J, Robinson JG, Sarto GE, Resnick SM.. Brain Res. 2013;1514():3-11.

Prevalence of anticholinergic drug use and impact on cognition in older women: results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) [abstract]. Wilson V, Espeland M, Rapp S, Oles K, Gass M, Thomas A, Sherwin B, Sink K.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013;61(Suppl 1):S14.

Positive and negative affect, depression, and cognitive processes in the Cognition in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (Co-STAR) Trial. Danhauer SC, Legault C, Bandos H, Kidwell K, Costantino J, Vaughan L, Avis NE, Rapp S, Coker LH, Naughton M, Naylor C, Terracciano A, Shumaker S.. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2013;20(5):532-552.

Performance of a computer-based assessment of cognitive function measures in two cohorts of seniors. Espeland MA, Katula JA, Rushing J, Kramer AF, Jennings JM, Sink KM, Nadkarni NK, Reid KF, Castro CM, Church T, Kerwin DR, Williamson JD, Marottoli RA, Rushing S, Marsiske M, Rapp SR.. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013;28(12):1239-1250.

Alzheimer's disease risk assessment using large-scale machine learning methods. Casanova R, Hsu FC, Sink KM, Rapp SR, Williamson JD, Resnick SM, Espeland MA.. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e77949.

Long-term effects on cognitive function of postmenopausal hormone therapy prescribed to women aged 50 to 55 years. Espeland MA, Shumaker SA, Leng I, Manson JE, Brown CM, LeBlanc ES, Vaughan L, Robinson J, Rapp SR, Goveas JS, Wactawski-Wende J, Stefanick ML, Li W, Resnick SM.. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(15):1429-1436.

Intraindividual variability in domain-specific cognition and risk of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Vaughan L, Leng I, Dagenbach D, Resnick SM, Rapp SR, Jennings JM, Brunner RL, Simpson SL, Beavers DP, Coker LH, Gaussoin SA, Sink KM, Espeland MA.. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2013;():495793.

(CNS) prevalence and predictors of driving among cognitively impaired older adults: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-epidemiology of cognitive health outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO) [abstract]. Sink KM, Corbett M, Dugan E, Espeland MA, Hogan P, Rapp S, Vaughan L, Shumaker SA.. Gerontologist. 2013;53(Suppl 1):7.

Normal tissue complication probability (Ntcp) model of radiation-induced mood disruption [abstract]. Peiffer AM, Burke A, Leyer CM, Shing E, Kearns WT, Hinson WH, Case D, Rapp SR, Shaw EG, Chan MD.. Neuro Oncol. 2013;15(Suppl 3):230.

Impact of a long-term behavioral weight loss intervention on cognitive function: the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory Study [abstract]. Rapp S, Bray GA, Hergenroeder AL, Houston DK, Jakicic JM, Kitabchi AE, Van Dorsten B, Williamson JD.. Gerontologist. 2013;53(Suppl 1):389.

Educational attainment, MRI changes, and cognitive function in older postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Rapp SR, Espeland MA, Manson JE, Resnick SM, Bryan NR, Smoller S, Coker LH, Phillips LS, Stefanick ML, Sarto GE.. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2013;46(2):121-143.

Phase II double-blind placebo-controlled study of armodafinil for brain radiation induced fatigue [abstract]. Shaw EG, Case D, Bryant D, Grisell D, Lesser G, Monitto DC, Naughton MJ, Rapp SR, Sovano SR, Shah S, Chan MD.. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(15 Suppl):9505.

Minority accrual on a prospective study targeting a diverse US breast cancer population: an analysis of Wake Forest CCOP research base protocol 97609 [abstract]. Urbanic JJ, Case D, Naughton MJ, Hu JJ, Enevold G, Beech B, Weaver KE, Danhauer S, Rapp SR, Sheidler V, Vitolins M, Lesser G, Shaw EG.. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(15 Suppl):6564.

Phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil in irradiated brain tumor survivors [abstract]. Rapp SR, Case D, Peiffer A, Naughton MJ, Stieber VW, Bayer GK, Bilodeau PA, Moore DF, Falchuk SC, Needles BM , Piephoff J, Edenfield WJ, Giguere JK, Erickson N, Loghin ME, Shaw EG.. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(15 Suppl):2006.

Quality of life (QOL) and cognitive status among irradiated brain tumor survivors treated with donepezil or placebo [abstract]. Case D, Naughton MJ, Stieber VW, Bayer GK, Bilodeau PA, Moore DF, Falchuk SC, Needles BM, Piephoff J, Edenfield WJ, Giguere JK, Erickson N, Loghin ME, Shaw EG, Rapp SR.. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(15 Suppl):2051.

Ascertaining dementia-related outcomes for deceased or proxy-dependent participants: an overview of the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study supplemental case ascertainment protocol. Gaussoin SA, Espeland MA, Absher J, Howard BV, Jones BM, Rapp SR.. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012;27(2):205-214.

Statins, risk of dementia, and cognitive function: secondary analysis of the ginkgo evaluation of memory study. Bettermann K, Arnold AM, Williamson J, Rapp S, Sink K, Toole JF, Carlson MC, Yasar S, Dekosky S, Burke G... J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2012;21(6):436-444.

Phase II study of Ginkgo biloba in irradiated brain tumor patients: effect on cognitive function, quality of life, and mood. Attia A, Rapp SR, Case LD, D'Agostino R, Lesser G, Naughton M, McMullen K, Rosdhal R, Shaw EG.. J Neurooncol. 2012;109(2):357-363.

Validation of a cognitive assessment battery administered over the telephone. Rapp SR, Legault C, Espeland MA, Resnick SM, Hogan PE, Coker LH, Dailey M, Shumaker SA.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(9):1616-1623.

Magnetic resonance imaging associates with differences in neurocognitive performance for cancer survivors complaining of cognitive deficits following brain irradiation [abstract]. Peiffer AM, Case D, Shaw EG, Rapp S.. Neuro Oncol. 2012;14(Suppl 6):63.

Late-life lifestyle activity as a buffer for cognitive decline and functional impairment [abstract]. Kuo J, Parisi JM, Nahin R, Fitzpatrick A, Rapp S, Lopez OL, Snitz B, Carlson M.. Gerontologist. 2012;52(Suppl 1):656.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine

Clinical Interests

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Geriatrics, Depression, Stress

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