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Stephen R. Rapp, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

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Stephen R. Rapp, Ph.D.



Clinical Interests

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Geriatrics, Depression, Stress

Contact Information

Returning Patient Appointments: 336-716-4551
Department: 336-716-4551


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Additional Languages


Education & Training

  • B.A., Bradley University, 1970
  • M.A., Bradley University, 1976
  • Ph.D., West Virginia University, 1983
  • Residency, Psychology, University of Mississippi Medi, 1983
  • Fellowship, Yale University School of Medi, 1990


  • North Carolina Psychological A
  • Soc Clin Trials
  • Am Psychological Assn
  • Gerontological Society Of Amer
  • Int'L Psychogeriatric Assoc

NPI Number

  • 1659355618
Stephen R. Rapp, Ph.D.

Doctor Rating

No Rating Available
Why No Ratings?

Stephen R. Rapp, Ph.D.

Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Social Sciences & Health Policy

Research Interests

Cognition Disorders; Cognition; Dementia; Postmenopause; Women's Health
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Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-6995 | Department: 336-716-4551


Recent Publications

Long-term impact of weight loss intervention on changes in cognitive function: exploratory analyses from the Action for Health in Diabetes randomized controlled clinical trial. Espeland MA, Carmichael O, Hayden K, Neiberg RH, Newman AB, Keller JN, Wadden TA, Rapp SR, Hill JO, Horton ES, Johnson KC, Wagenknecht L, Wing RR.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018;73(4):484-491.

Negative affect is associated with higher risk of incident cognitive impairment in nondepressed postmenopausal women. Korthauer LE, Goveas J, Espeland MA, Shumaker SA, Garcia KR, Tindle H, Salmoirago-Blotcher E, Sink KM, Vaughan L, Rapp SR, Resnick SM, Driscoll I.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018;73(4):506-512.

Long-term impact of intensive lifestyle intervention on cognitive function assessed with the National Institutes of Health Toolbox: the Look AHEAD study. Hayden KM, Baker LD, Bray G, Carvajal R, Demos-McDermott K, Hergenroeder AL, Hill JO, Horton E, Jakicic JM, Johnson KC, Neiberg RH, Rapp SR, Wadden TA, Miller ME.. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2018;10():41-48.

Neighborhood built environment and cognition in non-demented older adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Besser LM, Rodriguez DA, McDonald N, Kukull WA, Fitzpatrick AL, Rapp SR, Seeman T.. Soc Sci Med. 2018;200():27-35.

The Apathy in Dementia Methylphenidate Trial 2 (ADMET 2): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Scherer RW, Drye L, Mintzer J, Lanctot K, Rosenberg P, Herrmann N, Padala P, Brawman-Mintzer O, Burke W, Craft S, Lerner AJ, Levey A, Porsteinsson A, van Dyck CH, Baker LD, Williamson JD, Bell RA, Espeland M, Miller ME, Mott RT, Rapp S, Hayden K,.. Trials. 2018;19(1):46.

Long-term effects on cognitive trajectories of postmenopausal hormone therapy in two age groups. Espeland MA, Rapp SR, Manson JE, Goveas JS, Shumaker SA, Hayden KM, Weitlauf JC, Gaussoin SA, Baker LD, Padula CB, Hou L, Resnick SM.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017;72(6):838-845.

Effects of longitudinal glucose exposure on cognitive and physical function: results from the Action for Health in Diabetes Movement and Memory study. Beavers KM, Leng I, Rapp SR, Miller ME, Houston DK, Marsh AP, Hire DG, Baker LD, Bray GA, Blackburn GL, Hergenroeder AL, Jakicic JM, Johnson KC, Korytkowski MT, Dorsten BV, Kritchevsky SB.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65(1):137-145.

Validity of death certificate and hospital discharge ICD codes for dementia diagnosis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Fujiyoshi A, Jacobs DR Jr, Alonso A, Luchsinger JA, Rapp SR, Duprez DA.. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2017;31(2):168-172.

Effect of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention on cognitive function: Action for Health in Diabetes study. Rapp SR, Luchsinger JA, Baker LD, Blackburn GL, Hazuda HP, Demos-McDermott KE, Jeffery RW, Keller JN, McCaffery JM, Pajewski NM, Evans M, Wadden TA, Arnold SE, Espeland MA.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017;65(5):966-972.

Coronary artery calcium and risk of dementia in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Fujiyoshi A, Jacobs DR Jr, Fitzpatrick AL, Alonso A, Duprez DA, Sharrett AR, Seeman T, Blaha MJ, Luchsinger JA, Rapp SR.. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017;10(5):e005349.

Changes in metabolic risk factors over 10 years and their associations with late-life cognitive performance: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Hughes TM, Craft S, Baker LD, Espeland MA, Rapp SR, Sink KM, Bertoni AG, Burke GL, Gottesman RF, Michos ED, Luchsinger JA, Fitzpatrick AL, Hayden KM.. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2017;8():18-25.

Social participation modifies the effect of a structured physical activity program on major mobility disability among older adults: results from the LIFE study. Corbett DB, Rejeski WJ, Tudor-Locke C, Glynn NW, Kritchevsky SB, McDermott MM, Church TS, Fielding RA, Gill TM, King AC, Miller ME, Chen H, Pahor M, Manini TM, Pahor M, Guralnik JM, Leeuwenburgh C, Caudle C, Crump L, Holmes L, Lee J,.. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2017;():.

Effect of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention on prevalence of cognitive impairment. Espeland MA, Luchsinger JA, Baker LD, Neiberg R, Kahn SE, Arnold SE, Wing RR, Blackburn GL, Bray G, Evans M, Hazuda HP, Jeffery RW, Wilson VM, Clark JM, Coday M, Demos-McDermott K, Foreyt JP, Greenway F, Hill JO, Horton ES, Jakicic JM,.. Neurology. 2017;88(21):2026-2035.

The association between an inflammatory diet and global cognitive function and incident dementia in older women: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Hayden KM, Beavers DP, Steck SE, Hebert JR, Tabung FK, Shivappa N, Casanova R, Manson JE, Padula CB, Salmoirago-Blotcher E, Snetselaar LG, Zaslavsky O, Rapp SR.. Alzheimers Dement. 2017;13(11):1187-1196.

Diabetes and cognitive decline in older adults: the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study. Palta P, Carlson MC, Crum RM, Colantuoni E, Sharrett AR, Yasar S, Nahin RL, DeKosky ST, Snitz B, Lopez O, Williamson JD, Furberg CD, Rapp SR, Golden SH.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017;73(1):123-130.

Greater cognitive deficits with sleep-disordered breathing among individuals with genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Johnson DA, Lane J, Wang R, Reid M, Djonlagic I, Fitzpatrick AL, Rapp SR, Charles LE, O'Hara R, Saxena R, Redline S.. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017;14(11):1697-1705.

Optimism, pessimism, cynical hostility, and biomarkers of metabolic function in the Women's Health Initiative. Tindle HA, Duncan MS, Liu S, Kuller LH, Fugate Woods N, Rapp SR, Kroenke CH, Coday M, Loucks EB, Lamonte MJ, Progovac AM, Salmoirago-Blotcher E, Walitt BT, Yuo NY, Freiberg MS.. J Diabetes. 2017;():.

Effect of intensive blood-pressure treatment on patient-reported outcomes. Berlowitz DR, Foy CG, Kazis LE, Bolin LP, Conroy MB, Fitzpatrick P, Gure TR, Kimmel PL, Kirchner K, Morisky DE, Newman J, Olney C, Oparil S, Pajewski NM, Powell J, Ramsey T, Simmons DL, Snyder J, Supiano MA, Weiner DE, Whittle J, Rocco M,.. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(8):733-744.

The cocoa supplement and multivitamin outcomes study in the mind (cosmos-mind): design and rationale [abstract]. Gaussoin S, Espeland MA, Shumaker SA, Rapp SR, Harris D, Pleasants D, Robertson J, Baker LD.. Trials. 2017;18(Suppl 1):P398.

Genetic analysis of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and cognitive aging in postmenopausal women. Mozhui K, Snively BM, Rapp SR, Wallace RB, Williams RW, Johnson KC.. Front Genet. 2017;8():127.

Development of a video-simulation instrument for assessing cognition in older adults. Ip EH, Barnard R, Marshall SA, Lu L, Sink K, Wilson V, Chamberlain D, Rapp SR.. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2017;17(1):161.

Hippocampal dose volume histogram predicts Hopkins Verbal Learning Test scores after brain irradiation. Okoukoni C, McTyre ER, Ayala Peacock DN, Peiffer AM, Strowd R, Cramer C, Hinson WH, Rapp S, Metheny-Barlow L, Shaw EG, Chan MD.. Adv Radiat Oncol. 2017;2(4):624-629.

A study of donepezil in female breast cancer survivors with self-reported cognitive dysfunction 1 to 5 years following adjuvant chemotherapy. Lawrence JA, Griffin L, Balcueva EP, Groteluschen DL, Samuel TA, Lesser GJ, Naughton MJ, Case LD, Shaw EG, Rapp SR.. J Cancer Surviv. 2016;10(1):176-184.

Living long and living well: results from the Women's Health Initiative [editorial]. Rapp SR, LaCroix AZ, Shumaker SA.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71(Suppl 1):S100-S102.

Living well after 80 years: an introduction to the special issue [editorial]. Rapp SR, LaCroix AZ, Shumaker SA.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71(Suppl 1):S1-S2.

Predictors of optimal cognitive aging in 80+ women: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Goveas JS, Rapp SR, Hogan PE, Driscoll I, Tindle HA, Smith JC, Kesler SR, Zaslavsky O, Rossom RC, Ockene JK, Yaffe K, Manson JE, Resnick SM, Espeland MA.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71(Suppl 1):S62-S71.

Feasibility of self-administered sleep assessment in older women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Vaughan L, Redline S, Stone K, Ulanski J, Rueschman M, Dailey H, Rapp SR, Snively BM, Baker LD, Shumaker SA.. Sleep Breath. 2016;20(3):1079-1091.

Driving patterns and adverse driving events in a nationwide cohort of older women [abstract]. Marottoli R, Dugan E, Naughton M, Rapp S, Snively B, Vaughan L.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016;64(Suppl 1):S170.

Antidepressant use and subclinical measures of atherosclerosis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Camacho A, McClelland RL, Delaney JA, Allison MA, Psaty BM, Rifkin DE, Rapp SR, Szklo M, Stein MB, Criqui MH.. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2016;36(4):340-346.

Loneliness, depression, and inflammation: evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Mezuk B, Choi M, DeSantis AS, Rapp SR, Diez Roux AV, Seeman T.. PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0158056.

Hippocampal dosimetry predicts for cancer-related cognitive impairment in patients treated with cranial radiation therapy: dosimetric results of a prospective clinical trial [abstract]. Okoukoni C, McTyre E, Peiffer AM, Hinson W, Strowd RE, Rapp S, Chan MD.. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016;96(2 Suppl):S90-S91.

Predictors of driving exposure in a nationwide sample of older women findings from the WHIMS studies [abstract]. Marottoli R, Dugan E, Gaussoin S, Naughton M, Rapp S, Snively B, Vaughan L.. Gerontologist. 2016;56(Suppl 3):486-487.

Associations between sleep apnea and cognitive function; effect modification by apolipoprotein E-4 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) [abstract]. Johnson DA, Wang R, Djonlagic I, Fitzpatrick AL, Rapp SR, Charles LE, Redline S.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;193():A2846.

Accelerometer-based physical activity/sedentary time and cognition in older adults: Whi-Opach study [abstract]. Palta P, Joshi N, Rapp S, Shumaker S, LaCroix A, Evenson K.. Gerontologist. 2016;56(Suppl 3):486.

Sociodemographic correlates of cognition in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Fitzpatrick AL, Rapp SR, Luchsinger J, Hill-Briggs F, Alonso A, Gottesman R, Lee H, Carnethon M, Liu K, Williams K, Sharrett AR, Frazier-Wood A, Lyketsos C, Seeman T.. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015;23(7):684-697.

Change in neighborhood environments and depressive symptoms in New York City: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Mair C, Diez Roux AV, Golden SH, Rapp S, Seeman T, Shea S.. Health Place. 2015;32():93-98.

Donepezil for irradiated brain tumor survivors: a phase III randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Rapp SR, Case LD, Peiffer A, Naughton MM [sic] [Naughton MJ], Chan MD, Stieber VW, Moore DF Jr, Falchuk SC, Piephoff JV, Edenfield WJ, Giguere JK, Loghin ME, Shaw EG.. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(15):1653-1659.

Phase II double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study of armodafinil for brain radiation-induced fatigue. Page BR, Shaw EG, Lu L, Bryant D, Grisell D, Lesser GJ, Monitto DC, Naughton MJ, Rapp SR, Savona SR, Shah S, Case D, Chan MD.. Neuro Oncol. 2015;17(10):1393-1401.

Factors associated with nursing home admission after stroke in older women. Bell CL, LaCroix AZ, Desai M, Hedlin H, Rapp SR, Cene C, Savla J, Shippee T, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Stefanick ML, Masaki K.. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015;24(10):2329-2337.

Driving with mild cognitive impairment or dementia: cognitive test performance and proxy report of daily life function in older women. Vaughan L, Hogan PE, Rapp SR, Dugan E, Marottoli RA, Snively BM, Shumaker SA, Sink KM.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015;63(9):1774-1782.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors [abstract]. Gifford A, Lawrence J, Case D, Rapp S, Baker L, Craft S, Groteluschen DL, Klepin H, Lesser G, Naughton MJ, Sachs B, Samuel TA, Sink K, Williamson, J, Shaw EG.. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(15 Suppl):9560.

Effect of a 24-month physical activity intervention vs health education on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults: the LIFE randomized trial. Sink KM, Espeland MA, Castro CM, Church T, Cohen R, Dodson JA, Guralnik J, Hendrie HC, Jennings J, Katula J, Lopez OL, McDermott MM, Pahor M, Reid KF, Rushing J, Verghese J, Rapp S, Williamson JD.. JAMA. 2015;314(8):781-790.

Assessing everyday cognitive functioning with tablet-based simulations: the simbac system [abstract]. Rapp S, Sink KM, Barnard R, Wilson V, Chamberlain D, Mann E, Ip E.. Gerontologist. 2015;55(Suppl 2):392.

Cognitive factors associated with adherence to oral antiestrogen therapy: results from the cognition in the study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (Co-STAR) study. Klepin HD, Geiger AM, Bandos H, Costantino JP, Rapp SR, Sink KM, Lawrence JA, Atkinson HH, Espeland MA.. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2014;7(1):161-168.

The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in 8,724 SPRINT participants [abstract]. Sink KM, Chelune G, Coker L, Gaussoin S, Lerner A, Nichols L, Pajewski NM, Rapp S, Wadley V, Williamson J.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014;62(Suppl 1):S9-S10.

Long-term impact of behavioral weight loss intervention on cognitive function. Espeland MA, Rapp SR, Bray GA, Houston DK, Johnson KC, Kitabchi AE, Hergenroeder AL, Williamson J, Jakicic JM, van Dorsten B, Kritchevsky SB.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(9):1101-1108.

The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics. Sink KM, Espeland MA, Rushing J, Castro CM, Church TS, Cohen R, Gill TM, Henkin L, Jennings JM, Kerwin DR, Manini TM, Myers V, Pahor M, Reid KF, Woolard N, Rapp SR, Williamson JD.. Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9():1425-1436.

Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and brain volume in older adult women. Vaughan L, Erickson KI, Espeland MA, Smith JC, Tindle HA, Rapp SR.. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2014;69(6):826-836.

Incidence of mild cognitive impairment in irradiated brain tumor survivors [abstract]. Shaw E, McKee N, Case D, Lawrence J, Lesser G, Naughton M, Peiffer A, Loghin M, Giguere J, Stieber V, Rapp S.. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(Suppl 1):S162-S163.

L-arginine - based nutritional supplement did not improve erectile function or quality of life in prostate cancer survivors previously treated with radiation therapy: results of CCOP research base protocol 98110-A randomized phase 2 dose. Urbanic JJ, Case D, Lesser G, Enevold G, Naughton M, Danhauer S, Rapp S, Vitolins M, Johnson S, McCollough M, Duncan D, Papagikos M, Shaw EG.. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;90(Suppl 1):S86-S87.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine

Clinical Interests

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Geriatrics, Depression, Stress
Stephen R. Rapp, Ph.D.
CP concern for questions/worries
CP efforts to include in decisions
CP explanations of prob/condition
CP spoke using clear language
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Time CP spent with patient
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