Carol A. Shively, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

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Education & Training

  • B.A., Hiram College, 1979
  • M.A., University of California-Davis, 1981
  • Ph.D., University of California-Davis, 1983
  • Fellowship, WFU School of Medicine, 1986


  • Aha - Council On Arteriosclero
  • Am Psychological Assn
  • Am Soc Of Primatologists
  • Int'L Primatological Soc.
  • Intl Society Of Psychoneuroend
  • North Am Menopause Soc
  • Soc Of Behavioral Medicine
  • Society for Neuroscience
Carol A. Shively, Ph.D.

Carol A. Shively, Ph.D.

Professor, Pathology-Comparative Medicine
Center for Comparative Medicine Research
Center for Integrative Medicine
Hypertension and Vascular Research Center
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Sticht Center on Aging
Center on Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism
Physiology & Pharmacology

Research Interests

atherosclerosis/thrombosis, mental disorders/psychiatry/ps, neurosciences/behavior, obesity, radiology imaging/nuclear medi, women's health issues

Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-1524 | Department: 336-716-1524


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Recent Publications

Xu F, Wu Q, Xie L, Gong W, Zhang J, Zheng P, Zhou Q, Ji Y, Wang T, Li X, Fang L, Li Q, Yang D, Li J, Melgiri ND, Shively C, Xie P. Macaques exhibit a naturally-occurring depression similar to humans. Sci Rep. 2015;5():9220.

Shively CA, Register TC, Appt SE, Clarkson TB. Effects of long-term sertraline treatment and depression on coronary artery atherosclerosis in premenopausal female primates. Psychosom Med. 2015;77(3):267-278.

Justice JN, Cesari M, Seals DR, Shively CA, Carter CS. Comparative approaches to understanding the relation between aging and physical function. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015;():.

Santago AC II, Plate JF, Shively CA, Register TC, Smith TL, Saul KR. Age-related structural changes in upper extremity muscle tissue in a nonhuman primate model. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2015;24(10):1660-1668.

Stone AV, Vanderman KS, Willey JS, Long DL, Register TC, Shively CA, Stehle JR Jr, Loeser RF, Ferguson CM. Osteoarthritic changes in vervet monkey knees correlate with meniscus degradation and increased matrix metalloproteinase and cytokine secretion. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015;23(10):1780-1789.

Willard SL, Uberseder B, Clark A, Daunais JB, Johnston WD, Neely D, Massey A, Williamson JD, Kraft RA, Bourland JD, Jones SR, Shively CA. Long term sertraline effects on neural structures in depressed and nondepressed adult female nonhuman primates. Neuropharmacology. 2015;99():369-378.

Groban L, Kitzman DW, Register TC, Shively CA. Effect of depression and sertraline treatment on cardiac function in female nonhuman primates. Psychosom Med. 2014;76(2):137-146.

Shively CA, Register TC, Higley JD, Willard SL. Sertraline effects on cerebrospinal fluid monoamines and species-typical socioemotional behavior of female cynomolgus monkeys. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014;231(7):1409-1416.

Willard SL, Hemby SE, Register TC, McIntosh S, Shively CA. Altered expression of glial and synaptic markers in the anterior hippocampus of behaviorally depressed female monkeys. Neurosci Lett. 2014;563():1-5.

Murphy RA, Register TC, Shively CA, Carr JJ, Ge Y, Heilbrun ME, Cummings SR, Koster A, Nevitt MC, Satterfield S, Tylvasky FA, Strotmeyer ES, Newman AB, Simonsick EM, Scherzinger A, Goodpaster BH, Launer LJ, Eiriksdottir G,. Adipose tissue density, a novel biomarker predicting mortality risk in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(1):109-117.

Silverstein MG, Kaplan JR, Appt SE, Register TC, Shively CA. Effect of soy isoflavones on thyroid hormones in intact and ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Menopause. 2014;21(10):1136-1142.

Willard SL, Borgmann-Winter KE, Wang HY, MacDonald ML, Shively CA, Hahn CG. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunction in a female monkey model of depression [abstract]. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;75(9 Suppl):321S.

Silverstein MG, El-Amin CK, Shively CA. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and bleeding in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Comp Med. 2014;64(3):221-223.

Phillips KA, Bales KL, Capitanio JP, Conley A, Czoty PW, 't Hart BA, Hopkins WD, Hu SL, Miller LA, Nader MA, Nathanielsz PW, Rogers J, Shively CA, Voytko ML. Why primate models matter. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(9):801-827.

Xie L, Zhou Q, Liu S, Xu F, Shively CA, Wu Q, Gong W, Ji Y, Fang L, Li L, Melgiri ND, Xie P. Effect of living conditions on biochemical and hematological parameters of the cynomolgus monkey. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(11):1011-1024.

Shively CA, Register TC, Vitolins MZ, Wilson ME, Appt SE. Dietary modification of physiological stress responses [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(Suppl 1):71.

Shively CA, Wilson ME, Sanchez MM, Johnson ZP, Neigh GN, Silverstein MG, Willard SL, Michopoulos VJ. Interdisciplinary approaches to the study of social stress effects on health [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(Suppl 1):68.

Silverstein MG, Register TC, Appt SE, Shively CA. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and social stress on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism in female cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis) [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(Suppl 1):70.

Willard SL, Borgmann-Winter KE, Shively CA, Hahn CG. Modulation of stress signaling pathways by chronic social stress and antidepressant treatment in olfactory neuroepithelial cells from socially-housed female macaques (macaca fascicularis) [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(Suppl 1):70.

Choi SJ, Shively CA, Register TC, Feng X, Stehle J, High K, Ip E, Kritchevsky SB, Nicklas B, Delbono O. Force-generation capacity of single vastus lateralis muscle fibers and physical function decline with age in African green vervet monkeys.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68(3):258-267.

Feneran AN, O'Donnell R, Press A, Yosipovitch G, Cline M, Dugan G, Papoiu AD, Nattkemper LA, Chan YH, Shively CA. Monkey see, monkey do: contagious itch in nonhuman primates. Acta Derm Venereol. 2013;93(1):27-29.

Sophonsritsuk A, Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Shively CA, Espeland MA, Register TC. Differential effects of estradiol on carotid artery inflammation when administered early versus late after surgical menopause. Menopause. 2013;20(5):540-547.

Willard S, Johnston WD, Clark A, Uberseder B, Neely D, Massey A, Daunais J, Williamson J, Register TC, Bourland JD, Shively C. Long term sertraline treatment decreases volumes of hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex in an adult female primate model of depression [abstract]. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73(9 Suppl):235S.

Willard SL, Borgmann-Winter KE, MacDonald ML, Shively CA, Hahn CG. Altered composition of the postsynaptic density in behaviorally depressed adult female cynomolgus macaques [abstract]. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73(9 Suppl):154S.

Nattkemper LA, Zhao ZQ, Nichols AJ, Papoiu AD, Shively CA, Chen ZF, Yosipovitch G. Overexpression of the gastrin-releasing Peptide in cutaneous nerve fibers and its receptor in the spinal cord in primates with chronic itch [letter]. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133(10):2489-2492.

Kalinin S, Willard SL, Shively CA, Kaplan JR, Register TC, Jorgensen MJ, Polak PE, Rubinstein I, Feinstein DL. Development of amyloid burden in African Green monkeys. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34(10):2361-2369.

Li X, Xu F, Xie L, Ji Y, Cheng K, Zhou Q, Wang T, Shively C, Wu Q, Gong W, Fang L, Zhan Q, Melgiri ND, Xie P. Depression-like behavioral phenotypes by social and social plus visual isolation in the adult female Macaca fascicularis. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e73293.

Plate JF, Bates CM, Mannava S, Smith TL, Jorgensen MJ, Register TC, Stehle JR, High KP, Shively CA, Kaplan JR, Saul KR, Tuohy CJ. Age-related degenerative functional, radiographic, and histological changes of the shoulder in nonhuman primates. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013;22(8):1019-1029.

Willard SL, Riddle DR, Forbes ME, Shively CA. Cell number and neuropil alterations in subregions of the anterior hippocampus in a female monkey model of depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;74(12):890-897.

Shively CA, Kritchevsky SB, Register TC. Aging and physical function in nonhuman primates: a translational model [abstract]. Gerontologist. 2013;53(Suppl 1):249.

Shively CA, Willard SL. Behavioral and neurobiological characteristics of social stress versus depression in nonhuman primates. Exp Neurol. 2012;233(1):87-94.

Shively CA. Social stress and cardiovascular disease in primates In: Hjemdahl P, Rosengren A, Steptoe A, eds. Stress and cardiovascular disease. London (UK): Springer;2012: 17-29.

Willard SL, Shively CA. Modeling depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Am J Primatol. 2012;74(6):528-542.

Feneran AN, O'Donnell R, Press A, Yosipovitch G, Cline M, Dugan G, Papoiu A, Nattkemper L, Chan Y, Shively CA. Monkey see, monkey do: contagious itch in nonhuman primates [abstract]. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132(Suppl 1):S39.

Shively C. Sertraline has wide-ranging effects on socioemotional behavior in a female nonhuman primate model of depression [abstract]. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;71(8 Suppl):134S.

Shively CA, Willard SL, Register TC, Bennett AJ, Pierre PJ, Laudenslager ML, Kitzman DW, Childers MK, Grange RW, Kritchevsky SB. Aging and physical mobility in group-housed Old World monkeys. Age (Dordr). 2012;34(5):1123-1131.

Willard SL, Riddle DR, Forbes ME, Hemby SE, McIntosh S, Uberseder B, Shively CA. Cellular and molecular factors contributing to hippocampus size in an adult female monkey model of depression [abstract]. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 2012;2012(Neuroscience Meeting Planner):.

Willard SL, Daunais JB, Cline JM, Shively CA. Hippocampal volume in postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques with behavioral depression. Menopause. 2011;18(5):582-586.

Shively CA, Willard SL, Higley JD, Register TC. The effects of sertraline HCl on depressed adult female nonhuman primates [abstract]. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69(9 Suppl):128S.

Willard SL, Register TC, Kritchevsky SB, Shively CA. Effects of menstrual cycle and social stress on circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor in female monkeys [abstract]. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69(9 Suppl):219S-220S.

Chilton FH, Lee TC, Willard SL, Ivester P, Sergeant S, Register TC, Shively CA. Depression and altered serum lipids in cynomolgus monkeys consuming a Western diet. Physiol Behav. 2011;104(2):222-227.

Schnatz PF, Nudy M, Shively CA, Powell A, O'Sullivan DM. A prospective analysis of the association between cardiovascular disease and depression in middle-aged women. Menopause. 2011;18(10):1096-1100.

Shively CA, Willard SL. The slippery slope between social stress and depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2011;73(Suppl 1):103.

Willard SL, Register TC, Bennett AJ, Pierre PJ, Laudenslager ML, Kitzman DW, Childers MK, Grange RW, Kritschevsky SB [sic] [Kritchevsky SB], Shively CA. Developing models of aging and physical function in three species of old world monkeys [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2011;73(Suppl 1):81.

Tamashiro KL, Sakai RR, Shively CA, Karatsoreos IN, Reagan LP. Chronic stress, metabolism, and metabolic syndrome. Stress. 2011;14(5):468-474.

Willard SL, Riddle DR, Forbes ME, Shively CA. Effects of behavioral depression on cell number, size and density in the hippocampus of adult female cynomolgus macaques [abstract]. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 2011;2011(Neuroscience Meeting Planner):.

Maki PM, Freeman EW, Greendale GA, Henderson VW, Newhouse PA, Schmidt PJ, Scott NF, Shively CA, Soares CN. Summary of the National Institute on Aging-sponsored conference on depressive symptoms and cognitive complaints in the menopausal transition. Menopause. 2010;17(4):815-822.

Willard SL, Daunais JB, Shively CA. Magnetic resonance imaging of whole, anterior and posterior hippocampal volumes in behaviorally depressed cynomolgus macaques [abstract]. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;67(9 Suppl):52S.

Willard SL, Shively CA. Social factors influence behavior, pathophysiology, and disease susceptibility in adult female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) [abstract]. Am J Primatol. 2010;72(Suppl 1):44.

Schnatz PF, Shively CA, Millan L, Powell A, O'Sullivan DM, Clarkson TB. The association of cardiovascular disease and depression in menopausal age women: translational findings [abstract]. Menopause. 2010;17(6):1240.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

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