Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the backward flow of urine
from the bladder into the kidneys. Normally, urine flows from the kidneys
through the ureters to the bladder. The muscles of the bladder and ureters and
the pressure of urine in the bladder prevent urine from flowing backward
through the ureters.
Reflux causes an abnormal amount of urine to
remain in the bladder, which makes it easier for bacteria to grow and reach the
kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux is present in about one-third of children with
urinary tract infections (UTIs).1 It can lead to kidney damage and scarring.
Treatment of reflux depends on how bad the problem is.
Tanagho EA, Nguyen HT (2008). Vesicoureteral reflux.
In EA Tanagho, JW McAninch, eds., Smith's General Urology, 17th ed., pp. 179–192. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Larcombe J (2010). Urinary tract infection in children, search date July 2009. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.
March 10, 2011
Susan C. Kim, MD - Pediatrics
& Avery L. Seifert, MD - Urology
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