Borderline personality disorder is a mental illness that causes intense
mood swings, impulsive behaviors, and severe problems with self-worth. It can lead to troubled relationships in every
area of a person's life.
Most of the time, signs
of the disorder first appear in childhood. But problems often don't start until
early adulthood. Treatment can be hard, and getting better can take years.
Problems with emotions and behaviors are hard to improve. But
with treatment, most people with severe
symptoms do get better over time.
know exactly what causes borderline personality disorder. Problems with chemicals in the brain that help
control moods may play a role. It also seems to run in
Often, people who get it faced some kind of childhood
trauma such as abuse, neglect, or the death of a parent. The risk is higher when people who had childhood trauma also have problems
anxiety or stress.
Everyone has problems with
emotions or behaviors sometimes. But if you have borderline personality
disorder, the problems are severe, repeat over a long time, and disrupt your
life. The most common symptoms include:
Other symptoms may include:
It's easy to confuse this disorder with other mental
illnesses. And they may overlap. So if you think that
you or someone you know may have borderline personality disorder, see a doctor.
Don't try to diagnose yourself.
Borderline personality disorder can be hard to treat. It's common for symptoms to return. And many people with the disorder have troubled relationships with their counselors and doctors.
But you can take steps to help control the disorder. Long-term treatment can reduce symptoms and harmful behaviors and help you better manage your emotions. Treatment may include:
Many people find relief from harmful symptoms within the first year
of treatment.1 And about half of those treated find that they no longer have most of the behaviors after about 10
years of treatment.1
people don't seek treatment for mental health problems. They may think that their symptoms aren't bad enough or that they can
work things out on their own. But getting treatment is key to improving your symptoms and the quality of your life.
People with this disorder often have other mental health problems such as
eating disorders, or
substance abuse. Treatment can help with these problems too.
Accepting that a loved one has a personality disorder can be hard. You may feel helpless. But there are things you can do to help. Show love, and learn as much as you can about the illness. Understand that the behavior you may see—which may include anger directed at you—is caused by the illness, not by the person you love.
Know when to get help. This disorder can cause a person to become angry, violent, or suicidal. Take these situations seriously. Call for help if you think the person may be in danger or may harm someone else.
Finding your own support is important too. Ask your local or state health department about local support organizations, or contact the National Alliance on Mental Illness. For more information, go to www.nami.org.
Learning about borderline personality disorder:
Mental Health America (formerly known as the National
Mental Health Association) is a nonprofit agency devoted to helping people of
all ages live mentally healthier lives. Its website has information about
mental health conditions. It also addresses issues such as grief, stress,
bullying, and more. It includes a confidential depression screening test for
anyone who would like to take it. The short test may help you decide whether
your symptoms are related to depression.
The National Alliance on Mental Illness is a national
self-help and family advocacy organization dedicated solely to improving the
lives of people who have severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar
disorder (manic depression), major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder,
and panic disorder. NAMI focuses on support, education, advocacy, and research.
The mission of the organization is to "eradicate mental illness and improve the
quality of life of those affected by these diseases."
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) provides
information to help people better understand mental health, mental disorders,
and behavioral problems. NIMH does not provide referrals to mental health
professionals or treatment for mental health problems.
The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is a 24-hour,
toll-free suicide prevention service. Crisis centers are located in 130
locations across the United States. Each caller is routed to the closest provider
of mental health and suicide prevention services.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Personality disorders. In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text rev., pp. 706–710. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Other Works Consulted
Coid J, et al. (2009). Borderline personality disorder: Health service use and social functioning
among a national household population. Psychological Medicine, 39(10): 1721–1731.
Gunderson J (2011). Borderline personality disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 364(21): 2037–2042.
Gunderson JG (2008). Borderline Personality Disorder: A Clinical Guide, 2nd ed., Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Oldham JM (2005). Guideline Watch: Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder, 2nd ed., pp. 1–9. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Skodol AE, Gunderson JG (2008). Personality disorders. In RE Hales, SC Yudofsky, eds., The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th ed., pp. 821–859. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
March 8, 2013
Sarah Marshall, MD - Family Medicine
& Lisa S. Weinstock, MD - Psychiatry
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