The table below summarizes the tests that can be done
to identify complications from diabetes, including those tests done during a physical exam.
The physical exam evaluates your overall health. The doctor pays special attention to your eyes, blood vessels, heart, lungs, nerves,
abdomen, and feet. Tests range from taking your blood pressure to drawing blood to test your
cholesterol or kidney function.
Organ or condition
What it shows
High blood sugar
Every 3 to 6 months, have a hemoglobin A1c test.
How steady your blood sugar levels have been over time
Less than 7% for most nonpregnant adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and children with type 2 diabetes
Less than 7.5% for teens 13 to 19 years old with type 1 diabetes
Less than 8% for children 6 to 12 years old with type 1 diabetes
Less than 8.5% for children younger than 6 years of age with type 1 diabetes
Every year, get your LDL cholesterol,
HDL cholesterol, and
triglyceride levels checked.
The amount of fat in your blood, which can raise your risk of heart attack and stroke
LDL less than 100 mg/dL (if you have heart disease, your doctor might recommend keeping
it at 70 mg/dL)
HDL more than
40 mg/dL in men and more than 50 mg/dL in women
Triglycerides less than 150 mg/dL
High blood pressure
Every 3 to 6 months when you visit your doctor, have your blood pressure checked. If you don't see your doctor that often, at least have your blood pressure checked once a year.
Pressure of blood flow in your
Less than 120/80 for most people
High blood pressure is 140/80 or higher
In between these two levels is called prehypertension
Every year, get a random urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) test that checks for microalbumin, or small amounts of protein. If you have a high ACR or protein in your urine, it is a sign of kidney damage.
Every year, get a blood test for creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Whether kidney disease is developing
The stage of kidney disease, if you already have it
Less than 30 mg/g of protein in your urine
eGFR greater than 60 mL/min
Every year, visit an
ophthalmologist or an optometrist for a dilated eye exam (ophthalmoscopy). Some doctors may recommend less
frequent eye exams if you have no signs of
Whether retinopathy (damage to back of the eye)
No retinal damage
Every 3 to 6 months when you visit your doctor, take off your socks so you will both remember to check your feet. Once a year, get a more thorough examination of your feet. This is also known as a complete foot exam.
Whether foot ulcers have developed
the person has lost any sensation
No foot ulcers or loss of sensation
Twice a year, have a dental exam.
Healthy gums and teeth
If you have high cholesterol, or if you are a woman over 50 years old, your doctor may recommend a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) blood test.
Normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level
Your doctor may recommend a liver function blood test, especially if you are taking a medicine that could affect your liver.
Normal liver function test
American Diabetes Association (2013). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2013. Diabetes Care, 36(Suppl 1): S11–S66.
American Academy of Pediatrics (2013). Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 131(2): 364–382. Also available online: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/131/2/364.full.html.
July 16, 2013
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
& David C.W. Lau, MD, PhD, FRCPC - Endocrinology
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