Whooping cough (pertussis) is a
disease that causes very severe coughing that may last for months. During bursts of violent coughing, you may make a noise that sounds like a "whoop" when you try to take a breath. You can
cough so hard that you hurt a rib.
Whooping cough spreads
easily from one person to another. Getting the pertussis vaccine can help you avoid the disease, make it less severe, and prevent you from spreading it to those who are at risk for more serious problems.
care, most people recover from whooping cough with no problems. But severe coughing spells can decrease the blood's oxygen supply and lead to other problems, such as pneumonia. The illness can be dangerous in older adults and young children, especially babies who aren't old enough to have had the pertussis vaccine.
Whooping cough is
caused by bacteria that infect the top of the throat (pharynx). The bacteria bother the throat, which causes
When someone with
whooping cough coughs, sneezes, or laughs, tiny drops of fluid holding the
bacteria are put into the air. The bacteria can infect others when people breathe
in the drops or get them on their hands and touch their mouth or nose. After
the bacteria infect someone, symptoms appear about 7 to 14 days later.
Symptoms of whooping cough may occur in three stages, especially in young children. Adults and older children may not follow this pattern of symptoms.
In stage 1, symptoms are like those
of a cold:
In stage 2, the cold symptoms get
better, but the cough gets worse.
In stage 3, you still have symptoms, but you feel better and grow
Adults and older children usually have milder
symptoms than young children. How bad your symptoms are also depends on whether you've had the vaccine and how long ago it was.
Symptoms of whooping
cough usually last 6 to 10 weeks, but they may last longer.
Your doctor will
ask you about your symptoms and do a physical exam. To rule out other health problems, he or she may
order tests such as a chest X-ray or blood tests.
It can sometimes be hard to diagnose
whooping cough, because you may seem healthy between coughing episodes.
Your doctor may take a sample of mucus from your nose and have it tested for
the bacteria that cause whooping cough.
Whooping cough is usually treated with antibiotics. These medicines make it less likely that you will
spread the disease. Also, if you start taking the antibiotics when you first get
whooping cough, the disease may not last as long. Family members and other close contacts may be prescribed antibiotics before they have any symptoms.1
Babies, especially those younger than 4 months, usually are treated in the hospital. This allows the doctor to see
how well the baby deals with and recovers from coughing spells. It also makes it easier for the baby to get extra oxygen and other care if needed.
To avoid spreading the illness:1
If your child has whooping cough:
Many of these same tips will help if you're an adult with whooping cough. Make sure you get enough fluids, avoid triggers like smoke and dust, and consider using a humidifier.
Over-the-counter medicines, such as cough syrups and antihistamines, don't help with whooping cough.
Making sure that you and your children are immunized against whooping cough is the best way to prevent it. Starting at age 2 months, children need a series of shots (called DTaP) to protect against whooping cough. A booster shot (called Tdap) is recommended at age 11 or 12 and for all teens and adults who never had a Tdap shot.
Because whooping cough symptoms can be mild in adults, you may not know that you have the illness. Without a Tdap shot, if you have whooping cough, you can spread whooping cough to a young infant or another person who isn't protected and for whom the disease is much more dangerous.
You can get whooping cough more than one time, and you may get it years
apart. But you will be less likely to get it again if you get the shots as
Washing your hands
often and staying away from people who have a bad cough may also help you avoid
getting the disease.
Learning about whooping cough:
Preventing whooping cough:
The website FamilyDoctor.org is sponsored by the American Academy of Family Physicians. It offers information on adult and child health conditions and healthy living. There are topics on medicines, doctor visits, physical and mental health issues, parenting, and more.
This CDC website has information about vaccines and the diseases that can
be prevented by immunization. It includes the recommended
immunization schedules for children, teens, and adults. You can also find
information about vaccine side effects and safety, school and state
requirements, and immunization records. Interactive schedules are also
This website is sponsored by the Nemours Foundation. It
has a wide range of information about children's health—from allergies and
diseases to normal growth and development (birth to adolescence). This website
offers separate areas for kids, teens, and parents, each providing
age-appropriate information that the child or parent can understand. You can
sign up to get weekly emails about your area of interest.
The National Network for Immunization Information provides
information on immunizations, including each of the recommended childhood
vaccines, the recommended childhood immunization schedule, tips on using the
World Wide Web as a source of immunization and health information, and links to
other helpful sites. You can also search for the vaccines that each state
requires before entry into school or day care.
This U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website has vaccine information from many federal agencies. A Spanish version of the website is available at http://es.vaccines.gov.
American Academy of Pediatrics (2009). Pertussis
(whooping cough). In LK Pickering et al., eds., Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 28th ed., pp. 504–519. Elk
Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
Other Works Consulted
Bettiol S, et al. (2010). Symptomatic treatment of the cough in whooping cough. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1).
Bravender T, Walter EB (2008). Pertussis section of Infectious respiratory illnesses. In LS Neinstein et al., eds., Adolescent Health Care: A Practical Guide, 5th ed., pp. 419–421. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adolescents: Use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 55(RR-3): 1–44. Also available online: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/RR/RR5503.pdf.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Pertussis. In W Atkinson et al., eds., Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 12th ed., pp. 291–300. Washington, DC: Public Health Foundation. Also available online:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2010. MMWR, 60(01): 13–15. Also available online:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant women and persons who have or anticipate having close contact with an infant aged <12 months: Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 60(41): 1424–1426. Also available online:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adults aged 65 years and older—Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012. MMWR, 61(25): 468–470. Also available online:
Cherry JD, Harrison RE (2006). Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough). In FD Burg et al., eds., Current Pediatric Therapy, 18th ed., pp. 723–727. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Connelly BL (2011). Pertussis. In CD Rudolph et al., eds., Rudolph’s Pediatrics, 22nd ed., pp. 1075–1077. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Long SS (2011). Pertussis (bordetella pertussis and bordetella parapertussis). In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., pp. 944–948. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Skerrett SJ (2009). Infections due to haemophilus, moraxella, legionella, bordetella, and pseudomonas. In EG Nabel, ed., ACP Medicine, section 7, chap. 10. Hamilton, ON: BC Decker.
Zhang L, et al. (2012). Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3).
August 31, 2012
John Pope, MD - Pediatrics
& W. David Colby IV, MSc, MD, FRCPC - Infectious Disease
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