Rotavirus is a virus that infects
intestinal tract of almost all young children by age
can get rotavirus more than once, but the first infection is usually the
worst. This infection causes stomach upset and diarrhea.
very young children who have rotavirus infections need to be watched closely,
because they can become
dehydrated very quickly. Dehydration occurs when the
body loses water more quickly than it is replaced. When your child becomes
dehydrated, severe health problems can arise.
spread easily. Outbreaks usually occur in the winter and early spring. Rotavirus infections often spread in settings where
many children are together, such as day care centers.
spreads through contact with the stool from an infected child. The virus can spread easily even when people try very hard to keep places clean. For
example, when a caregiver changes the messy diaper of a child who has rotavirus
infection, germs can get on the changing table, the caregiver's hands, or the
hands of the already-infected child. The rotavirus germs can then spread to
other children from the caregiver's or child's unwashed hands. It may be only a
few steps to the sink, but the germs may get on surfaces that the caregiver or
child touches along the way. For example, the germs may get on toys, doorknobs,
or sink surfaces. The germs can live for days on objects and surfaces if they
are not disinfected right away.
Other children who get the
rotavirus germs on their hands can get the infection when they put their hands
in their mouths. They can also get infected with rotavirus by chewing on a toy
that has the germs on it.
It takes about 1 to 3 days
for a child who is exposed to the virus to start having symptoms.
Vomiting is often the first symptom. Usually, a fever and diarrhea
follow. Most children with rotavirus have very watery diarrhea that seems like
a large amount for a baby or small child. The most severe diarrhea lasts 4 to 8
days. But episodes of diarrhea can last long after your child starts feeling
better. In some children, diarrhea can last for a few weeks.
Diarrhea, especially when it occurs along with vomiting, can quickly lead
to dehydration in babies and young children who have rotavirus. For this
reason, it is important to keep feeding your child and to watch him or her closely for signs of dehydration.
Your doctor will
probably diagnose your child with
rotavirus infection based on his or her symptoms. The
time of year also is an important clue. If your child has diarrhea and other
symptoms during the winter or early spring (about November through April), your
doctor will often suspect rotavirus as the cause.
A test of stool
can be done to confirm a diagnosis. This kind of test is not needed unless your
child has other health conditions that make it important to know the exact
cause of symptoms.
It is most important to help
keep your child comfortable and prevent dehydration.
child as much as he or she wants. Keep your child in comfortable clothes, and
change his or her diaper or underpants as needed. Your child may get a
diaper rash. To
treat diaper rash, you may need to use warm washcloths
to wipe your child's bottom and creams to help prevent soreness. In some cases,
you may want to hold your baby and rinse his or her bottom in running bath
water to clean the area well.
Don't give your child any
over-the-counter medicines unless you've checked with
the doctor first.
To prevent dehydration, your doctor may
recommend a rehydration drink designed for babies and young children, such as
Pedialyte. This may be especially helpful if your
child's diarrhea lasts longer than a few days. Rehydration drinks help replace
electrolytes. Plain water doesn't provide necessary
nutrients or electrolytes and may not be absorbed when your child has diarrhea.
Rehydration drinks do not make diarrhea go away faster, but they can prevent
give your baby or young child rehydration drinks for adults or sports drinks,
such as Gatorade. These drinks do not have the proper balance of nutrients and
electrolytes for small children.
Your doctor may suggest probiotics for your child. They are bacteria that help keep the natural balance of organisms (microflora) in the intestines. For more information, see the topic Probiotics.
A baby or young child needs to be
treated in a hospital if dehydration becomes severe. Call
911 or go to the emergency room if your
baby has signs of severe dehydration, which include:
It is hard to prevent your child from getting this infection. Studies show that breast-feeding may help prevent rotavirus or reduce its severity.
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helps protect against rotavirus disease. Depending on which
brand of vaccine is used, infants need 2 or 3 doses starting at 2 months of age.
To help prevent the spread of rotavirus, wash your hands thoroughly and often.
This CDC website has up-to-date information about rotavirus infection and how to prevent it.
This website is sponsored by the Nemours Foundation. It
has a wide range of information about children's health—from allergies and
diseases to normal growth and development (birth to adolescence). This website
offers separate areas for kids, teens, and parents, each providing
age-appropriate information that the child or parent can understand. You can
sign up to get weekly emails about your area of interest.
The National Network for Immunization Information provides
information on immunizations, including each of the recommended childhood
vaccines, the recommended childhood immunization schedule, tips on using the
World Wide Web as a source of immunization and health information, and links to
other helpful sites. You can also search for the vaccines that each state
requires before entry into school or day care.
This U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website has vaccine information from many federal agencies. A Spanish version of the website is available at http://es.vaccines.gov.
Other Works Consulted
Allen SJ, et al. (2010). Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12).
American Academy of Pediatrics (2009). Rotavirus infections. In LK Pickering et al., eds., Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 28th ed., pp. 576–579. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
Bass DM (2011). Rotaviruses, caliciviruses, and astroviruses. In RM Kliegman et al., eds., Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 19th ed., pp. 1134–1137. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants and children: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 58(RR-2): 1–25. Also available online: [Erratum in ...
Clark HF, et al. (2008). Rotavirus vaccines. In SA Plotkin et al., eds., Vaccines, 5th ed., section 2, pp. 715–734. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Dalby-Payne JR, Elliot EJ (2011). Gastroenteritis in children, search date March 2010. BMJ Clinical Evidence. Available online: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.
Sundaram S, et al. (2011). Gastrointestinal tract. In WW Hay et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Pediatrics, 20th ed., pp. 595–630. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ward RL, et al. (2009). Rotaviruses. In RD Feigin et al., eds., Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 6th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2245–2270. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
July 9, 2012
John Pope, MD - Pediatrics
& W. David Colby IV, MSc, MD, FRCPC - Infectious Disease
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