People who are infected with the
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased
risk for developing a
tuberculosis (TB) infection. Their risk for a TB
infection doubles in the first year they developed the HIV infection.1
If they have latent TB, which cannot be spread
to others, they are at risk for the infection becoming an active disease, which
can be spread to others. Active TB in the lungs also is more likely to spread
to other parts of the body (extrapulmonary TB) in people who have HIV infection
than in people who do not have it.
Both active and latent TB are
sometimes difficult to diagnose in people who also are infected with HIV or who
Active TB can be the first sign of an HIV infection or
Active TB may speed the progression of HIV in people who are
infected with both diseases and also may increase their risk of dying from the
HIV infection. People who have both diseases may be at increased risk for
multidrug-resistant TB. For these reasons, it is
important to promptly
treat people who have HIV infection and TB. With
treatment, latent and active TB usually can be cured in people who have HIV or
Sonnenberg P, et al. (2005). How soon after infection with HIV does the risk of tuberculosis start to increase? Journal of Infectious Diseases, 191(2): 150–158.
April 4, 2013
E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
& R. Steven Tharratt, MD, MPVM, FACP, FCCP - Pulmonology, Critical Care Medicine, Medical Toxicology
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