Scientists at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center have found new evidence that
mindfulness meditation reduces pain more effectively than placebo.
is significant because placebo-controlled trials are the recognized standard
for demonstrating the efficacy of clinical and pharmacological treatments.
research, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, showed
that study participants who practiced mindfulness meditation reported greater
pain relief than placebo. Significantly, brain scans showed that mindfulness
meditation produced very different patterns of activity than those produced by
placebo to reduce pain.
were completely surprised by the findings,” said Fadel Zeidan, Ph.D., assistant
professor of neurobiology and anatomy at Wake Forest Baptist and lead
investigator of the study. “While we thought that there would be some overlap
in brain regions between meditation and placebo, the findings from this study
provide novel and objective evidence that mindfulness meditation reduces pain
in a unique fashion.”
study used a two-pronged approach – pain ratings and brain imaging – to
determine whether mindfulness meditation is merely a placebo effect.
Seventy-five healthy, pain-free participants were randomly assigned to one of
four groups: mindfulness meditation, placebo meditation (“sham” meditation),
placebo analgesic cream (petroleum jelly) or control.
was induced by using a thermal probe to heat a small area of the participants’
skin to 49 degrees Centigrade (120.2 degrees Fahrenheit), a level of heat most
people find very painful. Study participants then rated pain intensity
(physical sensation) and pain unpleasantness (emotional response). The
participants’ brains were scanned with arterial spin labeling magnetic
resonance imaging (ASL MRI) before and after their respective four-day group
mindfulness meditation group reported that pain intensity was reduced by 27
percent and by 44 percent for the emotional aspect of pain. In contrast, the
placebo cream reduced the sensation of pain by 11 percent and emotional aspect
of pain by 13 percent.
MRI scans showed for the first time that mindfulness meditation produced patterns
of brain activity that are different than those produced by the placebo cream,”
meditation reduced pain by activating brain regions (orbitofrontal and anterior
cingulate cortex) associated with the self-control of pain while the placebo cream
lowered pain by reducing brain activity in pain-processing areas (secondary
brain region, the thalamus, was deactivated during mindfulness meditation, but
was activated during all other conditions. This brain region serves as a
gateway that determines if sensory information is allowed to reach higher brain
centers. By deactivating this area, mindfulness meditation may have
caused signals about pain to simply fade away, Zeidan said.
meditation also was significantly better at reducing pain intensity and pain
unpleasantness than the placebo meditation. The placebo-meditation group
had relatively small decreases in pain intensity (9 percent) and pain
unpleasantness (24 percent). The study findings suggest that placebo meditation
may have reduced pain through a relaxation effect that was associated with
study is the first to show that mindfulness meditation is mechanistically
distinct and produces pain relief above and beyond the analgesic effects seen
with either placebo cream or sham meditation,” Zeidan said.
on our findings, we believe that as little as four 20-minute daily sessions of
mindfulness meditation could enhance pain treatment in a clinical setting. However,
given that the present study examined healthy, pain-free volunteers, we cannot
generalize our findings to chronic pain patients at this time.”
work was supported by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative
Health, R21-AT007247, F32-AT006949 and K99-AT008238; the National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NS239426; the Mind and Life Institute
Francisco J. Varela Award; and the Wake Forest Center for Integrative Medicine.
are: Nichole M. Emerson, B.S., Suzan R. Farris, B.S., John G. McHaffie, Ph.D.,
and Youngkyoo Jung, Ph.D., of Wake Forest Baptist; Jenna N. Ray, Ph.D., of the
University of North Carolina, Charlotte; and Robert C. Coghill, Ph.D., of Cincinnati
Children’s Hospital Medical Center.