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Houle Lab Projects

Houle Lab Projects

Houle Figure 1  

Figure 1. Three assumptions for causal inferences of headache triggers. To infer that a headache trigger causes a headache (or causes the processes that do), several assumptions must be satisfied during pairings (Time 1 versus Time 2) of a trigger (e.g., drinking wine) and its opposite (e.g., not drinking wine). A headache sufferer must be the same across pairings such that they are equally as likely to have a headache absent the trigger. The trigger and its effect must be the same across pairings such that future encounters are likely to have the same influence. The pattern of background triggers (black and white circles) must be equivalent across pairings such that other trigger effects are not mistaken for the candidate trigger(wine).

 

 

Houle Figure 2

Figure 2. A. Using Gower’s distance, a measure of similarity of multiple measurements that ranges from 0 (identical on all dimensions) to 1.0 (maximal variability in relation to each measurement’s range), the similarity of subsequent days following the median weather day are plotted. Five days (red dots) could be found in the 3 years from that exhibited a difference of d ≤ 0.10, making them comparably similar to the selected day. B. A histogram of the number of similar (d ≤ 0.10) days that could be found for each calendar day from Nov 2009 to Jan 2011. C. An example of the similarity of two days with a difference of d = 0.097 on the considered weather domains.

 

Houle Figure 3

Figure 3. A. Using Gower’s distance, the similarity of subsequent days following the median ovarian hormone day are plotted. Two days (red dots) could be found in this 3 month period that exhibited a difference of d ≤ 0.10, making them comparably similar to the selected day. B. A histogram of the number of similar (d ≤ 0.10) days that could be found for each day over a 90-day observation period. C. An example of the similarity of two days with a difference of d = 0.102 on progesterone (PdG) and estrogen (E1G).

 

 Houle Figure 4

Figure 4. A. Using Gower’s distance, the similarity of subsequent days following the median stress day are plotted. Four days (red dots) could be found in the 3 month period that exhibited a difference of d ≤ 0.10, making them comparably similar to the selected day. B. A histogram of the number of similar (d ≤ 0.10) days that could be found for each day over a 90-day observation period. C. An example of the similarity of two days with a difference of d = 0.099 on the sum of the number of daily stress ratings (SUM), the number of stressful events (FREQ), and the average intensity rating of the events (AIR).

 

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Pain Mechanisms Lab

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Houle Lab Publications

A concise list of Publications by Timothy T Houle, PhD, Associate Professor, Anesthesiology specializing in pain research.     

Last Updated: 08-11-2014
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