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Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource

Carl D. Langefeld, Ph.D.

Director, Center for Public Health Genomics
Associate Director, Statistical Genomics and Bioinformatics within Biostatistics
Bioinformatics Shared Resource
Professor, Department of Biostatistical Sciences
Division of Public Health Sciences
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Winston-Salem, NC 27157
Phone: 336.713.0013


Concordia University, BA, BS, Mathematics, Biology ( 1983)
University of Nebraska, MS, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology (1986)
Florida State University, MS, Applied Statistics (1988)
University of Michigan, Ph.D., Biostatistics (1999)    

Research Topics

  • Statistical Genomics, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmaco-epigenetics:  
    • (NextGen sequence, epigenetics, gene expression, genome-wide association analysis, genomic signatures of natural selection in human disease)
  • Biostatistics and Large Data Analysis
  • Statistical Machine Learning
  • Analysis of clustered data (GEE1, mixed models)
  • Cancer, immunology & autoimmunity, renal disease, stroke, diabetes, obesity, metabolomics, population genetics, microevolution

Current Research

Dr. Langefeld is a biostatistician whose research focuses on mapping complex genetic traits.  He has two broad areas of research: 1) identification of genomic variation that predisposes to traits related to cancer, renal disease, diabetes, obesity, heart disease, stroke, and autoimmunity, and 2) development of analytic and bioinformatic methods to assist in the identification and interpretation of this variation. He plays leadership roles in several international genetics consortia and has served on numerous NIH (former standing member of CASE) and foundational grant review panels.  As Director of the Center for Public Health Genomics at Wake Forest and the Associate Director of Statistical Genomics and Bioinformatics within the Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource, he is very interested in developing genomics, pharmacogenomics and precision medicine relative to cancer.  In collaboration with, David McWilliams Ph.D., Jeff Chou, Ph.D. and he has developed DNA-seq and RNA-seq analysis pipelines, including an ION Torrent-based DNA-seq analysis pipeline to inform childhood cancer treatment strategies (Patrick Koty, Ph.D.). He is currently working with Drs. Glenn Lesser and Douglas Case of the Comprehensive Cancer Center to complete a genome-wide association study on radiation toxicity for breast cancer.

Selected Publications

(from >360 peer-reviewed publications)

  1. Boehnke M, Langefeld CD. Genetic association mapping based on discordant sib pairs: the discordant alleles test (DAT).  Am J Hum Genet 1998;62:950-961. PMCID: PMC1377027.
  2. Lange EM, Chen H, Brierley K, Livermore H, Wojno KJ, Langefeld CD, Lange K, Cooney KA.  The polymorphic exon 1 androgen receptor CAG repeat in men with a potential inherited predisposition to prostate cancer.  Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:439-442. PMID: 10794490.
  3. Xu J, Langefeld CD, Zheng SL, GillandersEM, ChangBL, Isaacs SD, Williams AH, Wiley KE, Dimitrov L, Meyers DA, Walsh PC, Trent JM, Isaacs WB. Interaction effect of PTEN and CDKN1B chromosomal regions on prostate cancer linkage.  Hum Genet 2004;115; 255-262.
  4. Ambrosius WT, Lange EM, Langefeld CDPower of genetic association studies with random allele frequencies and genotype distributions.  Am J Hum Genet 2004;74:683-693. PMID: 15185141.
  5. Chang BL, Lange EM, Dimitrov L, Valis CJ, Gillanders EM, Lange LA, Wiley KE, Isaacs SD, Wiklund F, Baffoe-Bonnie A, Langefeld CD, Zheng SL, Matikainen MP, Ikonen T, Fredriksson H, Tammela T, Walsh PA, Bailey-Wilson JE, Schleutker J, Gronberg H, Cooney KA, Isaacs WB, Suh E, Trent JM, Xu J.  Two-locus genome-wide linkage scan for prostate cancer susceptibility genes with an interaction effect.  Hum Genet 2005;23:1-9. PMID: 16328469.
  6. International Consortium for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Genetics ( SLEGEN) Harley, JB, Alarcόn-Riquelme ME, Criswell LA, Jacob CO, Kimberly RP, Moser KL, Tsao BP, Vyse TJ,  Langefeld, CD.  Genome-Wide association scan in women with systemic lupus erythematosus identifies susceptibility variants in ITGAM, PXK, KIAA1542 and other loci.  Nat Genet 2008;Feb;40(2):204-10. PMCID: PMC3712260,
  7. Yu G, Herrington D, Langefeld C, Wang Y. Detection of complex interactions of multiple SNPs. Proc. IEEE Intl Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing. Cancun, Mexico, Oct 16-19, 2008.  Computational Bioinformatics and Bio-imaging Laboratory (CBIL) Conference Paper pp. 85-90.
  8. Jacob CO, Zhu J, Armstrong DL, Yan M, Han J, Ahou XJ, Reiff A, Myones BL, Ojwang JO, Kaufman KM, Klein-Gitelman M, McCurdy D, Wagney-Weiner L, Silverman E, Ziegler J, Kelly JA, Merrill JT, Harley JB, James JA, Ramsey-Goldman R, Vila LM, Bae SC, Vyse TJ, Gilkeson GS, Gaffney PM, Moser KL, Langefeld CD, Zidovetzki R, Mohan C. Identification of IRAK1 as a risk gene with critical role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. ProcNatlAcadSci USA. 2009 Apr 14;106(15):6256-61. PMCID: PMC2669395.
  9. Gu Y, Harley IT, Henderson LB,  Aronow BJ, Vietor I, Huber LA, Harley JB, Kilpatrick JR, Langefeld CD, Williams AH, Jegga AG, Chen J, Wills-Karp M, Arshad SH, Ewart SL, Thio CL, Flick LM, Filippi MD, Grimes HL, Drumm ML, Cutting GR, Knowles MR, Karp CL. Identification of IFRD1 as a modifier gene for cystic fibrosis lung disease. Nature. 2009 Apr 23;458(7241):1039-42. PMCID:   PMC2841516.
  10. Harley IT, Kaufman KM, Langefeld CD, Harley JB, Kelly JA.   Genetic susceptibility to SLE:  new insights from fine mapping and genome-wide association studies. Nat Rev Genet. 2009 May;10(5):285-90.  PMCID: PMC2737697.
  11. Miller DJ, Zhang Y, Yu G, Liu Y, Chen L, Langefeld CD, Herrington D, Wang Y.  An Algorithm for learning maximum entropy probability models of disease risk that efficiently searches and sparingly encodes multilocus genomic interactions. Bioinformatics. 2009 Oct 1;25(19):2478-85.  PMCID:  PMC3140808.
  12. International Stroke Genetics Consortium; Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2. Failure to validate association between 12p13 variants and ischemic stroke.N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 22;362(16):1547-50. No abstract available. 
  13. Genovese G, Friedman DJ, Ross MD, Lecordier L, Uzureau P, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Oleksyk TK, Uscinski Knob AL, Bernhardy AJ, Hicks PJ, Nelson GW, Vanhollebeke B, Winkler CA, Kopp JB, Pays E, Pollak MR. Association of trypanolytic ApoL1 variants with kidney disease in African Americans.
  14. Guy RT, Santago P, Langefeld CD. Bootstrap aggregating of alternating decision trees to detect sets of SNPs that associated with disease. Genet Epidemiol 2012 Feb;36(2):99-106. PMCID: PMC3769952.
  15. Bowden DW, An SS, Palmer ND, Brown WM, Norris JM, Haffner SM, Hawkins GA, Guo X, Rotter JI, Chen YD, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD. Molecular basis of a linkage peak: exome sequencing and family-based analysis identify a rare genetic variant in the ADIPOQ gene in the IRAS Family Study. Hum Mol Genet. 2010; 19:4112-20.  PMCID: PMC2947405.

Quick Reference

Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource
Executive Director
Ralph D'Agostino Jr., PhD


Xiaobo Zhou, PhD

Senior Biostatisticians
Janet Tooze, PhD

Doug Case, PhD

Fang-Chi Hsu, PhD

Senior Bioinformaticians
Carl Langefeld, PhD

Guangxu Jin, PhD

Jing Su, PhD

Scott Isom, MS

Greg Russell, MS

Beverly Levine, PhD

Jeff Chou, PhD

Liang Lui, PhD

Dave McWilliams, PhD

Jian Zhang, PhD

Tina Martin, BSBA


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