Skip Navigation


"We are committed to training effective clinicians who are imbued with respect for patients and colleagues; who practice medicine with unquestionable professionalism; who appreciate honest communication; and who possess an innate curiosity to know more and a desire to pursue answers."

     Hal Atkinson, MD, Director, Internal Medicine Residency Program

A hallmark of our program is the emphasis placed on training residents to be effective clinicians. Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center is an exceptional hospital, drawing patients from a nineteen-county region of North Carolina as well as from surrounding states. Residents are intimately involved in patient care and have significant autonomy in decision-making. While nearly all rotations occur at the medical school/medical center, the Department also has a large community-based ambulatory health center. New initiatives are increasing residents interface with community-based generalists and subspecialists. They spend time in underserved areas of the Winston-Salem community, giving them insight into the challenges faced by patients and providers.

Faculty mentors and formal initiatives like the Tinsley Harrison Translational Research Program promote and support resident research. Our house staff’s impressive research productivity is reflected by published manuscripts, abstracts, and presentations at local, regional and national meetings.

Wake Forest is a national leader in evidence-based medicine (EBM). Residents are taught to be leaders in EBM and learn to critically appraise and apply the best evidence from the medical literature at the bedside and in clinic. Upper level residents assume an important role in teaching EBM to medical students and junior house officers. Residents also receive a solid foundation in medical systems. In 2006/2007 residents played an active role in implementing an electronic medical record system for ambulatory and inpatient services, a highly successful project.

Endocrinology Rotation Educational Objectives


The educational goals of the Endocrine Elective are for house officers to develop the ability to independently evaluate, treat and monitor common endocrine disorders (diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, lipid abnormalities, metabolic bone disease, and calcium disorders) and to be familiar enough with the less common endocrinopathies (adrenal disease, pituitary disease and gonadal dysfunction) to recognize the abnormality and initiate evaluation prior to sub-specialty consultation.

Educational Objectives

  1. Diabetes mellitus.  Differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Natural course of diabetes and its complications. Appropriate monitoring methodologies to include home glucose monitoring, glycated proteins and urine protein excretion.  Dietary management and pharmacological therapy to include intensive insulin programs, non-insulin injectables, oral hypoglycemic medications. Patient recommendations for "sick days" and hypoglycemia. Management of commonly associated disorders (hyperlipidemia and hypertension) and their interaction with diabetes management.  Appropriate and timely referrals to ophthalmology, podiatry, dietary and the diabetes education program.
  2. Thyroid disease. Diagnostic evaluation and management of the functional thyroid disorders ( hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism). Treatment options for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Evaluation of anatomic thyroid abnormalities (simple goiter, multinodular goiter and solitary thyroid nodule) to include use of nuclear medicine procedures, ultrasound studies and fine needle aspiration. Evaluation of thyroid function tests in the hospital and intensive care settings.
  3. Lipid disorders. NCEP guidelines. Secondary hyperlipidemia, dietary and pharmalcologic management of dislipidemias.
  4. Metabolic bone diseases. Diagnostic evaluation and treatment options of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Risk factors for osteoporosis. The use of bone densitometry. Osteomalacia, Paget's disease.
  5. Calcium disorders.  Diagnosis and management of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia.  Management of hyperparathyroidism (medical vs. surgical). Management of critical hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia. Diagnosis and management of vitamin D deficiency.
  6. Adrenal disease.  Diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndromes, adrenal failure and pheochromocytoma. Diagnosis and management of adrenal emergencies (Addisonian or pheochromocytoma crisis). Evaluations of the incidental adrenal mass.
  7. Pituitary disease. Diagnostic evaluation of pituitary tumors to include the incidental pituitary mass. The role of surgery, radiation therapy and medical management. Diagnosis and management of pituitary apoplexy. Empty sella syndrome. Diagnosis and evaluation of posterior pituitary dysfunction, such as DI and SIADH.
  8. Gonadal Dysfunction. Diagnostic evaluation of gynecomastia, hirsutism, amenorrhea and impotence. Androgen and estrogen replacement therapy.



Quick Reference

Endocrinology & Metabolism

Office 336-713-7251

Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center 
Medical Center Blvd.
Winston- Salem, NC  27157
Find A Doctor Ways to Give
Last Updated: 01-11-2016
Wake Forest Baptist Ranked among Nation’s ‘Best Hospitals’  25 Years in a Row by U.S. News & World ReportComprehensive Cancer Centers National Designation is Renewed2017-2018 Best DoctorsNursing Magnet StatusJoint Commission Report

Disclaimer: The information on this website is for general informational purposes only and SHOULD NOT be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice, evaluation or care from your physician or other qualified health care provider.

© Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157. All Rights Reserved.