Allison Brasher, MD
Dr. Brashear has been the principal investigator in many multi-center trials in the treatment of cervical dystonia and spasticity with botulinum toxin. She is the chair of the American Academy of Neurology/Movement Disorder Society Spasticity/Dystonia Advisory Board and directs courses at national workshops designed to teach the technique of botulinum toxin treatment.
Dr. Brashear has published numerous peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on topics including the use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of dystonia and spasticity. Her 2002 publication, “Intramuscular Injection of Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Wrist and Finger Spasticity After a Stroke” in the New England Journal of Medicine demonstrated functional improvement in patients treated with botulinum toxin for post-stroke spasticity. Dr. Brashear is the lead author on two pivotal papers on the use of botulinum toxin type B in cervical dystonia and spasticity.
Dr. Brashear is the principal clinician to describe a unique genetic form of dystonia-parkinsonism, Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP). The gene responsible for RDP, mutations in the Na/K ATPase a3 subunit, was reported in Neuron in July 2004.
Dr. Brashear’s work has appeared in such journals as Annals of Neurology, Neurology, Movement Disorders, Muscle and Nerve and others. Dr. Brashear is a frequent reviewer for these and other journals. Dr. Brashear is the current president of the Indiana Neurological Society, the only state-wide organization of neurologists. Dr. Brashear is a member of many professional organizations, including a fellow of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Neurological Association, the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the Movement Disorder Society.
Dr. Brashear graduated from Indiana University School of Medicine in 1987 and completed her training in Neurology in 1991.
Patrick Reynolds, MD
Dr. Reynolds completed his undergraduate training at Tennessee Technological University with a major in chemistry. While an undergraduate he completed four years of radiochemistry research and has a distinction of being trained in the obscure art of solvent extraction of tri-valent lanthanide, rare-earth metals. He attended medical school at Vanderbilt University in Nashville. He completed his internal medicine internship and neurology residency at North Carolina Baptist Hospital in 1995 and a two-year fellowship in cerebrovascular disease and neurosonology at Wake Forest School of Medicine in 1997.
After fellowship, Dr. Reynolds then joined the faculty as a stroke neurologist at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Mississippi. In Mississippi he was active in the care of stroke patients and in clinical trials of acute stroke therapies and secondary prevention of stroke. He was director of 3rd and 4th year medical student education in Neurology and helped administer the neurology residency program. He was a member of the executive board of the Mississippi Stroke Education Consortium and was active in stroke education throughout the state of Mississippi.
Dr. Reynolds joined the neurology faculty of Wake Forest School of Medicine in 1999. He is an Associate Professor specializing in stroke and cerebrovascular disease and neurosonology. He is the Director of the Acute Stroke Unit. His research interests include acute stroke therapy trials and secondary stroke prevention trials and research in medical education. He has served as a sub-investigator or principle investigator for numerous clinical stroke trials. He is currently an investigator in the NIN/NINDS SPS3 Trial (Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes) and is the local principle investigator for the POINT Trial (Acute Trial of Clopidogrel Loading in patients with TIA’s). In addition to his stroke research, he also participates in research involving the use of Botulinum Toxin for treatment of headaches and other neurogenic pain syndromes.
Dr. Reynolds is a diplomat of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and is subspecialty boarded in Vascular Neurology. He is a member of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and is an active member of the Consortium of Neurology Program Directors. He is a Fellow of the Stroke Council of the American Stroke Association. He holds certification in Neurosonology from the American Society of Neuroimaging (ASN) and was a member of the Board of Directors of the ASN for six years. He was also a member of the Board of Directors of the Intersocietal Commission for the Accreditation of Vascular Laboratories (ICAVL) for six years from 200-2006.
Dr. Reynolds is dedicated to undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate medical education and he is a member of the Wake Forest University Medical Foundation Distinguished Teaching Scholars program. In addition he is heavily involved in medical education as one of the medical school's Core Teaching Faculty as well as being a member of the medical school’s Core Advising Faculty who provide mentorship for the medical students. He is the faculty adviser for the Wake Forest School of Medicine's chapter of the AAN's SIGN (students interested in going into the neurosciences) organization. He is also the faculty advisor for the medical school’s chapter of the Wilderness Medical Society. He especially enjoys teaching about stroke, general neurology and neurovascular ultrasound. Dr. Reynolds has been the Neurology Residency Program Director for the Wake Forest University Department of Neurology since 2000 and has guided the program through two ACGME accreditation site visits with no citations from either visit. On a national level he recently completed a full six-year term as a member of the Graduate Education Subcommittee (GES) of the American Academy of Neurology and he is an active member of the Consortium of Neurology Program Directors. Dr. Reynolds is also an active participant in an international consortium of medical educators known as the M.I.A.M.I. (Miami International Alliance for Medical-Education Innovation) group, which meets several times each year at the Center for Research in Medical Education at the University of Miami School of Medicine.
Out of the hospital Dr. Reynolds enjoys spending as much free time as possible with his wife (an infectious diseases physician) and six-year old son. He also enjoys outdoor activities and especially likes to go mountain biking in the summer (with several broken bones to show for it) and snow skiing in the winter. Five years ago two medical students talked him into participating in a triathlon, and he ended up placing third in his age group and was officially hooked on the sport and is an active participant in several races each year.
Jane Boggs, MD
Dr. Jane Boggs, MD is a Virginia native who earned her medical degree at MCV in Richmond in 1987, and stayed there from internship through fellowship to complete her training in neurology, clinical neurophysiology and epilepsy. She then joined their faculty in epilepsy and co-directed the Clinical Neurophysiology Labs. Subsequently she was the neurology residency program director and director of the epilepsy monitoring units at University of South Alabama. Immediately prior to Wake Forest, she worked for the Orlando Regional Healthcare Medical Education Department, where she directed the epilepsy monitoring unit and the Epilepsy Association of Central Florida Clinics
She has maintained a career-long research interest in status epilepticus and critical care epilepsy, beginning as Principal Investigator on both the Greater Richmond Metropolitan Area Status Epilepticus NIH Study, and the VA CSP 265:Treatment of Status Epilepticus. From this she developed an interest in neurocardiology and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, as well as seizures in medically complex patients.
When not at Wake Forest University, she is enjoys time with her 2 children, Preston (8) and Laura (7), and their dog, Max in Martinsville, Virginia.
Michael Cartwright, MD
Dr. Michael Cartwright moved to North Carolina from Minnesota in 1994 to attend Wake Forest University. He stayed at Wake Forest for medical school and graduated from the School of Medicine in 2002. Dr. Cartwright completed both his internship and residency in neurology at the Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, and he was the Chief Resident in Neurology for 2005-2006. He then did a Clinical Research Training Fellowship sponsored by the Muscular Dystrophy Association, during which time he performed research related to diagnostic neuromuscular ultrasound.
Dr. Cartwright is active in the Wake Forest ALS and MDA clinics, and he also runs a general neuromuscular clinic and spends time in the EMG lab. His clinical interests include ALS, myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, CIDP, and inflammatory myopathies. His is active in research related to neuromuscular imaging and ALS diagnosis and treatment.
Patricia Gibson, MS
Patricia A. Gibson, a native of Virginia, completed her undergraduate studies at Radford University with a major in sociology and psychology and a minor in history. She received a Masters degree in Social Work from the University of Tennessee. She is a member of the Academy of Certified Social Workers. She joined the faculty in Neurology in 1976 as Associate Director of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program. Throughout her career in epilepsy at Wake Forest, Ms. Gibson’s efforts have been three pronged in the areas of research, direct service and education.
Much of her research interest has been in the area of the psychosocial issues in epilepsy. Present research efforts are in the area of the psychosocial impact of seizures, prevention of stigma, women and epilepsy and side-effects of anticonvulsants.
Ms. Gibson provides patient education, individual, family and group counseling for patients with epilepsy and their families. Present groups are a teen group and a parent group for parents of children with intractable seizures.
A major thrust of Ms. Gibson’s work has been in the area of education. She has given more than 600 lectures on epilepsy, presented 22 papers at national and international conferences, conducted 230 workshops and organized 37 national and international symposia on epilepsy. Ms. Gibson conducts an annual conference at the American Epilepsy Society meeting called the ADVANCES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF EPILEPSY AND THE EPILEPSY CLINIC designed for professionals on the front-lines of care and an annual Pediatric Epilepsy Symposium. She has conducted International Conferences on Epilepsy Care for non-MD professionals that is complementary to the Epilepsy Minifellowship for physicians conducted by the Department.
For the past 20 years, Ms. Gibson has conducted a program to teach children, specifically 4th grade students, about epilepsy in her community in an effort to prevent the stigma so often associated with epilepsy. In 1979 Ms. Gibson created the Epilepsy Information Service, a nationwide toll-free telephone information line. The first of its kind in the world, the Epilepsy Information Service makes up-to-date, accurate information on epilepsy available to professionals, persons with epilepsy and their families and the public. She has won numerous national and international awards for her advocacy efforts on behalf of those with epilepsy and their families.
Ihtsham Haq, MD
Dr. Haq enjoys seeing patients with a host of movement disorders (dystonia, essential tremor, Huntington disease, Parkinson disease, Parkinson-plus syndromes, and Tourette syndrome), with his subspecialty is in treatment of essential tremor and Parkinson disease with deep brain stimulation. His main interest is the effect of DBS on cognition and non-motor symptoms in both Parkinson’s and psychiatric disease.
David Lefkowitz, MD
Dr. Lefkowitz completed his undergraduate training at Franklin and Marshall College and attended medical school at the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University. He completed his internship and Neurology residency at North Carolina Baptist Hospital. He joined the faculty after completing a fellowship in cerebrovascular disease at Bowman Gray School of Medicine in 1983.
Dr. Lefkowitz is a diplomat of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. He is a member of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Neurologic Association and the Stroke Council of the American Stroke Association. His clinical interests are cerebrovascular disease and headache. He has research interests in acute stroke therapies and stroke prevention. He has participated in multiple NIH funded clinical trials including the Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Plaque Study (ACAPS), the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study (ACAS), the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention Study (VISP) and studies of neurologic and neuropsychologic complications of cardiac surgery and falls in the elderly. He is currently an investigator in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) study, the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and LookAHEAD studies.
Maria Sam, MD
Born in Cuba and raised in Baltimore, Maryland, Dr. Maria Sam did her undergraduate work in biology at Loyola College in Baltimore. She then received her Master's Degree in Anatomy at the University of Maryland where she worked for a year in the Neurosurgery Department. She then entered Ponce School of Medicine in Ponce, Puerto Rico where she was the student representative to the Academic Senate for 3 consecutive years, and participated in the Young Scientist Program at NIH. She graduated second in her class and became a member of Alpha Omega Alpha.
Dr. Sam did her internship in Medicine at Franklin Square Hospital, at Johns Hopkins Affiliated Hospital in Baltimore. She continued her training at West Virginia University in Morgantown where she was a neurology resident for 3 years and chief resident for 2 years. She then finished her post-graduate medical training by completing a two-year fellowship in Neurophysiology and Epilepsy at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.
She joined the Department of Neurology as an Assistant Professor in early 1996 and holds the distinction of being the first female physician to join the Neurology faculty at Wake Forest School of Medicine.
Her interests include epilepsy, with special interest in the inherited epilepsies, women's issues in epilepsy, and novel ways to image the brain.
She devotes 75% of her time pursuing these interests by caring for patients in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit, interpreting EEG's, Evoked Potentials, and sleep studies. Dr. Sam cares for patients in the Outpatient Epilepsy Clinic where she has been director since September, 1998. She also cares for patients in the general neurology inpatient services and consult services. The remainder of her time is dedicated to teaching medical students, residents, and fellows, as well as conducting clinically relevant research.
Dr. Sam is a diplomat of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and has successfully completed the Added Qualifications in Neurophysiology Examination. She is a member of the following organizations: National Academy of Science, New York Academy of Science, American EEG Society, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, American Academy of Neurology, and the Medical Foundation Clinical Scholars Program at Wake Forest School of Medicine.
In 2009, Dr. Sam became the MS III and MS IV neurology clerkship program director, director of Comprehensive Epilepsy clinic, and director of Clinical Neurophysiology fellowship,
When she's not at work, Dr. Sam enjoys spending time with her 3 children, and her husband, who is a physician in Emergency Medicine. Together, they enjoy the outdoors - bicycling, visiting national parks, and reading. Dr. Sam devotes part of her time trying to increase interest in neuroscience by taking part in the "Neuroscience in the Classroom" program developed by the American Academy of Neurology. This program seeks to disseminate knowledge and spark interest in neuroscience among children from K-12 grades.
Charles Tegeler, MD
Raised in Springfield, MO, Dr. Tegeler completed undergraduate and medical school training at the University of Missouri-Kansas City, where he also completed Internal Medicine residency. He did Neurology residency at the University of Texas Health Science Center-San Antonio, remaining on faculty there for four and a half years. In 1990, Dr. Tegeler joined the faculty at Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC. As a Professor of Neurology, he now holds the McKinney-Avant Chair in Neurosonology. In 1992 he was appointed as Head of the Section on Stroke, Cerebrovascular Disease, and Neurosonology, within the Department of Neurology, and in 2006 became the first Director of the WFBMC Stroke Center. Lately, this has involved a focus on the development and implementation of the WFBMC Telestroke Network, and development of the strategic plan for stroke, as part of the Neuroscience Center of Excellence. In October, 2010, Dr. Tegeler was named Director of Telestroke Services at WFBMC. He also serves as Medical Director of the Neuroultrasound Laboratory, and Director of the Ward A. Riley Ultrasound Center, and has a cross-appointments in the Hypertension and Vascular Research Center.
Dr. Tegeler’s research has focused on new uses of ultrasound in stroke, cerebrovascular disease, as well as the use of ultrasound for risk identification and prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease. He directs the Neurovascular Ultrasound courses at WFSM, as well as fellowship and mini-fellowship programs, and was senior editor for the comprehensive textbook, Neurosonology. He has developed interests in the use of integrative medicine techniques, such as biofield/bioenergy (Healing Touch), heart rate variability coherence biofeedback (HeartMath), and sound/music therapy (Ambient Therapy). He hopes to help bridge the gap to conventional medicine by carrying out scientifically sound research and quality improvement projects, eventually integrating these methods into clinical practice.
Dr. Tegeler has served as President of the American Society of Neuroimaging, Chair of the Neuroimaging Section of the American Academy of Neurology, and is on the Executive Committee of the Neurosonology Research Group of the World Federation of Neurology. He served on the Board of Directors for the Intersocietal Commission for Accreditation of Vascular Laboratories from 1990-1998, and again from 2006-present. He was a member of the Vascular Neurology Board Exam Committee (2004-2008), is Chair of the Neurosonology Section of the American Institute of Ultrasound In Medicine, is Vice-President of the North Carolina Stroke Association, and is the immediate Past-President of the North Carolina Neurological Society. Dr. Tegeler now serves on the NC Stroke Advisory Council, and is Chair of the Sub-Committee developing a stroke systems of care plan for NC relative to Telemedicine/Telestroke. He enjoys sharing many outdoor and sports activities, music, autocross racing, and church functions with his wife and young adult son and daughter.