Tourette's disorder is a brain condition that starts in childhood. Children with Tourette's make sounds or movements—such as coughing or twitching—that they can't control. These are called tics.
Tics usually start at about age 2. They may be at their worst by age 12. Tics tend to decrease during teenage years. They can continue into adulthood but occur less often and are less severe than in childhood.
Tourette's tends to run in families. Other things that may increase the risk include:
Most children with Tourette's have different patterns of tics. The tics may not be obvious. They can be bursts of movement or sounds that last for seconds or minutes.
Tics can include:
It's common for a person who has Tourette's to feel an urge in some part of the body that builds and builds. This urge can only be relieved by performing the tic. But not everyone with the disorder is aware of these urges.
A doctor can diagnose Tourette's based on your child's medical history and symptoms. The doctor may want to know if tics are causing school or social problems for your child.
There are no tests to diagnose Tourette's. But in some cases an electroencephalogram (EEG), a
CT scan, or blood tests may be done to check for other health problems. Your doctor may also check for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or other learning or behavior problems. These problems sometimes occur along with Tourette's
Treatment for Tourette's disorder focuses on helping your child cope with the tics. Understanding how tics affect your child can help you and your child know what to expect. It may help to identify when tics occur and what is going on in your child's life during those times.
If tics are seriously affecting your child's quality of life at home or school, then counseling, behavioral therapy to reduce tics (habit reversal), and medicines may help. If your child has other medical problems, these may need to be treated first to see how they affect your child's symptoms.
Despite what you might have seen in movies or on TV, most people with Tourette's disorder don't have uncontrollable outbursts of cursing or sexual behavior.
As your child ages, the pattern of tics can change. Tics may come and go over weeks and months. They may also change from one kind to another. Tics may get worse and then get better. Your child may get a new tic, or an old one may come back.
Tics may get worse for no reason. Your child may try to suppress tics, which may make them last longer or be worse than at other times. They may also get worse when your child is ill, under stress, or excited.
Having Tourette's doesn't have to mean that your child will have social problems or trouble in school. You can help your child learn to cope with tics. Start by learning more about Tourette's and being supportive at home. Work with your child's teachers so they can understand how tics affect your child.
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Learning about Tourette's disorder:
Living with Tourette's disorder:
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and
Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National Institutes of Health, is the leading
U.S. federal government agency supporting research on brain and nervous system
disorders. It provides the public with educational materials and information
about these disorders.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) offers a
variety of educational materials about parenting,
general growth and development, immunizations, safety, disease prevention, and more. AAP guidelines for various conditions and links to other
organizations are also available.
NCBDDD aims to find the cause of and prevent birth
defects and developmental disabilities. This agency works to help people of all
ages with disabilities live to the fullest. The website has information on
many topics, including genetics, autism, ADHD, fetal alcohol spectrum
disorders, diabetes and pregnancy, blood disorders, and hearing loss.
This website is sponsored by the Nemours Foundation. It
has a wide range of information about children's health—from allergies and
diseases to normal growth and development (birth to adolescence). This website
offers separate areas for kids, teens, and parents, each providing
age-appropriate information that the child or parent can understand. You can
sign up to get weekly emails about your area of interest.
The National Tourette Syndrome Association is a volunteer organization whose
mission is to educate people about
Tourette's disorder (or syndrome). The association supports research on
Tourette's disorder and provides services to people affected by Tourette's disorder. It offers local chapters, a newsletter, and other resources.
Other Works Consulted
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Chadehumbe MA, et al. (2011). Psychopharmacology of tic disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58(1): 259–272.
Fahn S, et al. (2010). Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. In LP Rowland, TA Pedley, eds., Merritt's Neurology, 12th ed., pp. 735–737. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Himle MB, et al. (2006). Brief review of habit reversal training for Tourette syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology, 21(8): 719–725.
Jummani R, Coffey BJ (2009). Tic disorders. In BJ Sadock et al., eds., Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 3609–3623. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Murphy TK, et al. (2010). The immunobiology of Tourette's disorder, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus, and related disorders: A way forward. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 20(4): 317–331.
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1132–1133. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
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Ropper AH, Samuels MA (2009). Tremor, myoclonus, focal dystonias, and tics. In Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology, 9th ed., pp. 89–110. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Simpson DM, et al. (2008). Assessment: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of movement disorders (an evidence-based review). Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 70(19): 1699–1706.
Stubbe D (2007). Tourette disorder and other tic disorders. In Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Practical Guide, pp. 87–93. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Ursano AM, et al. (2008). Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. In RE Hales et al., eds., American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th ed., pp. 898–920. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
July 22, 2013
John Pope, MD - Pediatrics
& Karin M. Lindholm, DO - Neurology
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