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Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Education & Training

  • B.A., Vanderbilt University, 1972
  • Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1978
  • Fellowship, Duke University Hospital, 1981


  • Am Assn Of Advancement Of Scie
  • Am Diabetes Assn
  • Am Soc of Human Genetics
  • Fed Of Am Soc For Experimental
Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D.

Donald W. Bowden, Ph.D.

Director, Center for Diabetes Research
Associate Director, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Professor, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research
Office of Women in Medicine and Science

Research Interests

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; African Americans; Diabetic Nephropathies; Genetic Predisposition to Disease
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Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-7507 | Department: 336-713-7500


Recent Publications

Blood pressure indices and cardiovascular disease mortality in persons with or without diabetes mellitus. Gomadam P, Shah A, Qureshi W, Yeboah PN [sic] Yeboah PK, Freedman BI, Bowden D, Soliman EZ, Yeboah J.. J Hypertens. 2018;36(1):85-92.

FGF23 concentration and APOL1 genotype are novel predictors of mortality in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Chan GC, Divers J, Russell GB, Langefeld CD, Wagenknecht LE, Hsu FC, Xu J, Smith SC, Palmer ND, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Register TC, Ma L, Carr JJ, Freedman BI.. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(1):178-186.

Genome-wide study of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue reveals novel sex-specific adiposity loci in Mexican Americans. Gao C, Langefeld CD, Ziegler JT, Taylor KD, Norris JM, Chen YI, Hellwege JN, Guo X, Allison MA, Speliotes EK, Rotter JI, Bowden DW, Wagenknecht LE, Palmer ND.. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018;26(1):202-212.

Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity. Turcot V, Lu Y, Highland HM, Schurmann C, Justice AE, Fine RS, Bradfield JP, Esko T, Giri A, Graff M, Guo X, Hendricks AE, Karaderi T, Lempradl A, Locke AE, Mahajan A, Marouli E, Sivapalaratnam S, Young KL, Alfred T, Feitosa MF,.. Nat Genet. 2018;50(1):26-41.

The African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES) III: contribution of genotype to glaucoma phenotype in African Americans: study design and baseline data. Zangwill LM, Ayyagari R, Liebmann JM, Girkin CA, Feldman R, Dubiner H, Dirkes KA, Holmann M, Williams-Steppe E, Hammel N, Saunders LJ, Vega S, Sandow K, Roll K, Slight R, Auerbach D, Samuels BC, Panarelli JF, Mitchell JP, Al-Aswad LA,.. Ophthalmology. 2018;():.

Heart rate is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study. Prasada S, Oswalt C, Yeboah P, Saylor G, Bowden D, Yeboah J.. World J Diabetes. 2018;9(1):33-39.

Transethnic evaluation identifies low-frequency loci associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Hong J, Hatchell KE, Bradfield JP, Andrew B, Alessandra C, Chao-Qiang L, Langefeld CD, Lu L, Lu Y, Lutsey PL, Musani SK, Nalls MA, Robinson-Cohen C, Roizen JD, Saxena R, Tucker KL, Ziegler JT, Arking DE, Bis JC, Boerwinkle E, Bottinger EP,.. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018;103(4):1380-1392.

Cerebral structure and cognitive performance in African Americans and European Americans with type 2 diabetes. Hsu FC, Sink KM, Hugenschmidt CE, Williamson JD, Hughes TM, Palmer ND, Xu J, Smith SC, Wagner BC, Whitlow CT, Bowden DW, Maldjian JA, Divers J, Freedman BI.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018;73(3):407-414.

The Apathy in Dementia Methylphenidate Trial 2 (ADMET 2): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Scherer RW, Drye L, Mintzer J, Lanctot K, Rosenberg P, Herrmann N, Padala P, Brawman-Mintzer O, Burke W, Craft S, Lerner AJ, Levey A, Porsteinsson A, van Dyck CH, Baker LD, Williamson JD, Bell RA, Espeland M, Miller ME, Mott RT, Rapp S, Hayden K,.. Trials. 2018;19(1):46.

Transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in adipose and muscle tissue associated with composite glucometabolic phenotypes. Langefeld CD, Comeau ME, Sharma NK, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Das SK.. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018;26(3):559-569.

Adipose tissue depot volume relationships with spinal trabecular bone mineral density in African Americans with diabetes. Chan GC, Divers J, Russell GB, Langefeld CD, Wagenknecht LE, Xu J, Smith SC, Bowden DW, Register TC, Carr JJ, Lenchik L, Freedman BI.. PLoS One. 2018;13(1):e0191674.

A large-scale multi-ancestry genome-wide study accounting for smoking behavior identifies multiple significant loci for blood pressure. Sung YJ, Winkler TW, de Las Fuentes L, Bentley AR, Brown MR, Kraja AT, Schwander K, Ntalla I, Guo X, Franceschini N, Lu Y, Cheng CY, Sim X, Vojinovic D, Marten J, Musani SK, Li C, Feitosa MF, Kilpelainen TO, Richard MA, Noordam R, Aslibekyan S,.. Am J Hum Genet. 2018;102(3):375-400.

Metabolomics identifies distinctive metabolite signatures for measures of glucose homeostasis: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRAS-FS). Palmer ND, Okut H, Hsu FC, Ng MCY, Ida Chen YD, Goodarzi MO, Taylor KD, Norris JM, Lorenzo C, Rotter JI, Bergman RN, Langefeld CD, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW.. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018;103(5):1877-1888.

Exome sequencing identifies genetic variants associated with circulating lipid levels in Mexican Americans: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Gao C, Tabb KL, Dimitrov LM, Taylor KD, Wang N, Guo X, Long J, Rotter JI, Watanabe RM, Curran JE, Blangero J, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Palmer ND.. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):5603.

Psoas and paraspinous muscle index as a predictor of mortality in African American men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Murea M, Lenchik L, Register TC, Russell GB, Xu J, Smith SC, Bowden DW, Divers J, Freedman BI.. J Diabetes Complications. 2018;32(6):558-564.

Predicting mortality in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus: soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, coronary artery calcium, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Hayek SS, Divers J, Raad M, Xu J, Bowden DW, Tracy M, Reiser J, Freedman BI.. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7(9):e008194.

Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor compared to coronary artery calcium score and high sensitivity C reactive protein in predicting death in African American with diabetes [abstract]. Raad M, Hayek S, Xu JZ, Bowden D, Reiser D, Freedman B.. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(11 Suppl):1831.

Associations of coronary artery calcified plaque density with mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study. Raffield LM, Cox AJ, Criqui MH, Hsu FC, Terry JG, Xu J, Freedman BI, Carr JJ, Bowden DW.. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2018;17(1):67.

Genome-wide interaction with the insulin secretion locus MTNR1B reveals CMIP as a novel type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene in African Americans. Keaton JM, Gao C, Guan M, Hellwege JN, Palmer ND, Pankow JS, Fornage M, Wilson JG, Correa A, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Rotter JI, Chen YI, Taylor KD, Rich SS, Wagenknecht LE, Freedman BI, Ng MCY, Bowden DW.. Genet Epidemiol. 2018;():.

Genome-wide association studies suggest that APOL1-environment interactions more likely trigger kidney disease in African Americans with nondiabetic nephropathy than strong APOL1-second gene interactions. Langefeld CD, Comeau ME, Ng MCY, Guan M, Dimitrov L, Mudgal P, Spainhour MH, Julian BA, Edberg JC, Croker JA, Divers J, Hicks PJ, Bowden DW, Chan GC, Ma L, Palmer ND, Kimberly RP, Freedman BI.. Kidney Int. 2018;():.

Volumetric bone mineral density of the spine predicts mortality in African-American men with type 2 diabetes. Lenchik L, Register TC, Russell GB, Xu J, Smith SC, Bowden DW, Divers J, Freedman BI.. Osteoporos Int. 2018;():.

Genome-wide linkage and association analysis of cardiometabolic phenotypes in Hispanic Americans. Hellwege JN, Palmer ND, Dimitrov L, Keaton JM, Tabb KL, Sajuthi S, Taylor KD, Ng MC, Speliotes EK, Hawkins GA, Long J, Ida Chen YD, Lorenzo C, Norris JM, Rotter JI, Langefeld CD, Wagenknecht LE, Bowden DW.. J Hum Genet. 2017;62(2):175-184.

Increased intestinal permeability as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Cox AJ, Zhang P, Bowden DW, Devereaux B, Davoren PM, Cripps AW, West NP.. Diabetes Metab. 2017;43(2):163-166.

Genome-wide association of CKD progression: the chronic renal insufficiency cohort study. Parsa A, Kanetsky PA, Xiao R, Gupta J, Mitra N, Limou S, Xie D, Xu H, Anderson AH, Ojo A, Kusek JW, Lora CM, Hamm LL, He J, Sandholm N, Jeff J, Raj DE, Boger CA, Bottinger E, Salimi S, Parekh RS, Adler SG, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Groop PH,.. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28(3):923-934.

Multiethnic genome-wide meta-analysis of ectopic fat depots identifies loci associated with adipocyte development and differentiation. Chu AY, Deng X, Fisher VA, Drong A, Zhang Y, Feitosa MF, Liu CT, Weeks O, Choh AC, Duan Q, Dyer TD, Eicher JD, Guo X, Heard-Costa NL, Kacprowski T, Kent JW Jr, Lange LA, Liu X, Lohman K, Lu L, Mahajan A, O'Connell JR, Parihar A, Peralta JM,.. Nat Genet. 2017;49(1):125-130.

Analysis of whole exome sequencing with cardiometabolic traits using family-based linkage and association in the IRAS Family Study. Tabb KL, Hellwege JN, Palmer ND, Dimitrov L, Sajuthi S, Taylor KD, Ng MC, Hawkins GA, Chen YI, Brown WM, McWilliams D, Williams A, Lorenzo C, Norris JM, Long J, Rotter JI, Curran JE, Blangero J, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW.. Ann Hum Genet. 2017;81(2):49-58.

Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height. Marouli E, Graff M, Medina-Gomez C, Lo KS, Wood AR, Kjaer TR, Fine RS, Lu Y, Schurmann C, Highland HM, Rueger S, Thorleifsson G, Justice AE, Lamparter D, Stirrups KE, Turcot V, Young KL, Winkler TW, Esko T, Karaderi T, Locke AE, Masca NG,.. Nature. 2017;542(7640):186-190.

A genome-wide linkage and association analysis of imputed insertions and deletions with cardiometabolic phenotypes in Mexican Americans: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Gao C, Hsu FC, Dimitrov LM, Okut H, Chen YI, Taylor KD, Rotter JI, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Palmer ND.. Genet Epidemiol. 2017;41(4):353-362.

A low-frequency inactivating Akt2 variant enriched in the Finnish population is associated with fasting insulin levels and type 2 diabetes risk. Manning A, Highland HM, Gasser J, Sim X, Tukiainen T, Fontanillas P, Grarup N, Rivas MA, Mahajan A, Locke AE, Cingolani P, Pers TH, Vinuela A, Brown AA, Wu Y, Flannick J, Fuchsberger C, Gamazon ER, Gaulton KJ, Im HK, Teslovich TM, Blackwell TW,.. Diabetes. 2017;66(7):2019-2032.

Blood pressure indices and cardiovascular mortality in diabetics and non diabetics [abstract]. Gomadam P, Qureshi W, Shah A, Freedman B, Bowden DW, Soliman E, Yeboah J.. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69(11 Suppl):1849.

A genome-wide association study of IVGTT-based measures of first phase insulin secretion refines the underlying physiology of type 2 diabetes variants. Wood AR, Jonsson A, Jackson AU, Wang N, van Leewen N, Palmer ND, Kobes S, Deelen J, Boquete-Vilarino L, Paananen J, Stancakova A, Boomsma DI, de Geus EJ, Eekhoff EM, Fritsche A, Kramer M, Nijpels G, Simonis-Bik A, van Haeften TW,.. Diabetes. 2017;66(8):2296-2309.

Discovery and fine-mapping of adiposity loci using high density imputation of genome-wide association studies in individuals of African ancestry: African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium. Ng MCY, Graff M, Lu Y, Justice AE, Mudgal P, Liu CT, Young K, Yanek LR, Feitosa MF, Wojczynski MK, Rand K, Brody JA, Cade BE, Dimitrov L, Duan Q, Guo X, Lange LA, Nalls MA, Okut H, Tajuddin SM, Tayo BO, Vedantam S, Bradfield JP, Chen G,.. PLoS Genet. 2017;13(4):e1006719.

Loss of cardioprotective effects at the ADAMTS7 locus as a result of gene-smoking interactions. Saleheen D, Zhao W, Young R, Nelson CP, Ho WK, Ferguson JF, Rasheed A, Ou K, Nurnberg ST, Bauer RC, Goel A, Do R, Stewart AFR, Hartiala J, Zhang W, Thorleifsson G, Strawbridge RJ, Sinisalo J, Kanoni S, Sedaghat S, Marouli E, Kristiansson K,.. Circulation. 2017;135(24):2336-2353.

Associations of early kidney disease with brain magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive function in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Freedman BI, Sink KM, Hugenschmidt CE, Hughes TM, Williamson JD, Whitlow CT, Palmer ND, Miller ME, Lovato LC, Xu J, Smith SC, Launer LJ, Barzilay JI, Cohen RM, Sullivan MD, Bryan RN, Wagner BC, Bowden DW, Maldjian JA, Divers J.. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017;70(5):627-637.

Region-based association tests for sequencing data on survival traits. Chien LC, Bowden DW, Chiu YF.. Genet Epidemiol. 2017;41(6):511-522.

Adiponectin isoform patterns in ethnic-specific ADIPOQ mutation carriers: the IRAS Family Study. Tabb KL, Gao C, Hicks PJ, Hawkins GA, Rotter JI, Chen YI, Guo X, Norris JM, Lorenzo C, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Palmer ND.. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017;25(8):1384-1390.

Type 2 diabetes variants disrupt function of SLC16A11 through two distinct mechanisms. Rusu V, Hoch E, Mercader JM, Tenen DE, Gymrek M, Hartigan CR, DeRan M, von Grotthuss M, Fontanillas P, Spooner A, Guzman G, Deik AA, Pierce KA, Dennis C, Clish CB, Carr SA, Wagner BK, Schenone M, Ng MCY, Chen BH, Centeno-Cruz F, Zerrweck C,.. Cell. 2017;170(1):.

Genetic regulation of adipose tissue transcript expression is involved in modulating serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol. Sajuthi SP, Sharma NK, Comeau ME, Chou JW, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Parks JS, Das SK.. Gene. 2017;632():50-58.

Diabetic microvascular disease: an endocrine society scientific statement. Barrett EJ, Liu Z, Khamaisi M, King GL, Klein R, Klein BEK, Hughes TM, Craft S, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Vinik AI, Casellini CM.. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102(12):4343-4410.

Enteroendocrine and adipokine associations with type 2 diabetes: phenotypic risk scoring approaches. Cox AJ, Zhang P, Bowden DW, Devereaux B, Davoren PM, Cripps AW, West NP.. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;():.

Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls. Jason F, Fuchsberger C, Mahajan A, Teslovich TM, Agarwala V, Gaulton KJ, Caulkins L, Koesterer R, Ma C, Moutsianas L, McCarthy DJ, Rivas MA, Perry JRB, Sim X, Blackwell TW, Robertson NR, Rayner NW, Cingolani P, Locke AE,.. Sci Data. 2017;4():170179.

Genome-wide association study of coronary artery calcified atherosclerotic plaque in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Divers J, Palmer ND, Langefeld CD, Brown WM, Lu L, Hicks PJ, Smith SC, Xu J, Terry JG, Register TC, Wagenknecht LE, Parks JS, Ma L, Chan GC, Buxbaum SG, Correa A, Musani S, Wilson JG, Taylor HA, Bowden DW, Carr JJ, Freedman BI.. BMC Genet. 2017;18(1):105.

Bone mineral density of the radius predicts all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: Diabetes Heart Study. Lenchik L, Register TC, Hsu FC, Xu J, Smith SC, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Bowden DW.. J Clin Densitom. 2017;():.

Associations between anxiety and depression symptoms and cognitive testing and neuroimaging in type 2 diabetes. Raffield LM, Brenes GA, Cox AJ, Freedman BI, Hugenschmidt CE, Hsu FC, Xu J, Wagner BC, Williamson JD, Maldjian JA, Bowden DW.. J Diabetes Complications. 2016;30(1):143-149.

APOL1 genotype and kidney transplantation outcomes from deceased African American donors. Freedman BI, Pastan SO, Israni AK, Schladt D, Julian BA, Gautreaux MD, Hauptfeld V, Bray RA, Gebel HM, Kirk AD, Gaston RS, Rogers J, Farney AC, Orlando G, Stratta RJ, Mohan S, Ma L, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Hicks PJ, Palmer ND,.. Transplantation. 2016;100(1):194-202.

Generalization of rare variant association tests for longitudinal family studies. Chien LC, Hsu FC, Bowden DW, Chiu YF.. Genet Epidemiol. 2016;40(2):101-112.

Tissue-specific and genetic regulation of insulin sensitivity-associated transcripts in African Americans. Sharma NK, Sajuthi SP, Chou JW, Calles-Escandon J, Demons J, Rogers S, Ma L, Palmer ND, R McWilliams D, Beal J, Comeau M, Cherry K, Hawkins GA, Menon L, Kouba E, Davis D, Burris M, Byerly SJ, Easter L, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Das SK.. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(4):1455-1468.

Analysis of advanced glycation end products in the DHS Mind Study. Adams JN, Martelle SE, Raffield LM, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Hsu FC, Maldjian JA, Williamson JD, Hugenschmidt CE, Carr JJ, Cox AJ, Bowden DW.. J Diabetes Complications. 2016;30(2):262-268.

Analysis of the relationships between type 2 diabetes status, glycemic control, and neuroimaging measures in the Diabetes Heart Study Mind. Raffield LM, Cox AJ, Freedman BI, Hugenschmidt CE, Hsu FC, Wagner BC, Xu J, Maldjian JA, Bowden DW.. Acta Diabetol. 2016;53(3):439-447.

Genetic analysis of advanced glycation end products in the DHS MIND study. Adams JN, Raffield LM, Martelle SE, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Carr JJ, Cox AJ, Bowden DW.. Gene. 2016;584(2):173-179.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

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