Skip Navigation


Christina Elizabeth Hugenschmidt, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Christina Elizabeth Hugenschmidt, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor,

Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-4190 | Department: 336-713-8570

Education & Training

  • B.A., University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 1998
  • M.S., University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 2000
  • Ph.D., Wake Forest University, 2008
  • Fellowship, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, WFU School of Medicine, 2012


  • Org for Human Brain Map
  • Society for Neuroscience
Christina Elizabeth Hugenschmidt, Ph.D.

Christina Elizabeth Hugenschmidt, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Center on Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism

Research Interests

Cognition Disorders; Brain; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Aging; Cognition
More »

Contact Information

Academic: 336-713-4190 | Department: 336-713-8570

Recent Publications

Cerebral structure and cognitive performance in African Americans and European Americans with type 2 diabetes. Hsu FC, Sink KM, Hugenschmidt CE, Williamson JD, Hughes TM, Palmer ND, Xu J, Smith SC, Wagner BC, Whitlow CT, Bowden DW, Maldjian JA, Divers J, Freedman BI.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018;73(3):407-414.

Associations of early kidney disease with brain magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive function in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Freedman BI, Sink KM, Hugenschmidt CE, Hughes TM, Williamson JD, Whitlow CT, Palmer ND, Miller ME, Lovato LC, Xu J, Smith SC, Launer LJ, Barzilay JI, Cohen RM, Sullivan MD, Bryan RN, Wagner BC, Bowden DW, Maldjian JA, Divers J.. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017;70(5):627-637.

Associations between anxiety and depression symptoms and cognitive testing and neuroimaging in type 2 diabetes. Raffield LM, Brenes GA, Cox AJ, Freedman BI, Hugenschmidt CE, Hsu FC, Xu J, Wagner BC, Williamson JD, Maldjian JA, Bowden DW.. J Diabetes Complications. 2016;30(1):143-149.

Analysis of advanced glycation end products in the DHS Mind Study. Adams JN, Martelle SE, Raffield LM, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Hsu FC, Maldjian JA, Williamson JD, Hugenschmidt CE, Carr JJ, Cox AJ, Bowden DW.. J Diabetes Complications. 2016;30(2):262-268.

Analysis of the relationships between type 2 diabetes status, glycemic control, and neuroimaging measures in the Diabetes Heart Study Mind. Raffield LM, Cox AJ, Freedman BI, Hugenschmidt CE, Hsu FC, Wagner BC, Xu J, Maldjian JA, Bowden DW.. Acta Diabetol. 2016;53(3):439-447.

Verbal auditory cueing of improvisational dance: a proposed method for training agency in Parkinson's disease. Batson G, Hugenschmidt CE, Soriano CT.. Front Neurol. 2016;7():15.

Dopamine pathway gene variants may modulate cognitive performance in the DHS - Mind Study. Martelle SE, Raffield LM, Palmer ND, Cox AJ, Freedman BI, Hugenschmidt CE, Williamson JD, Bowden DW.. Brain Behav. 2016;6(4):e00446.

Insulin resistance correlations with executive functioning in sedentary older adults: the INFINITE study [abstract]. Dougherty A, Brinkley TE, Lyles MF, Nicklas BJ, Williams JA, Hugenschmidt CE.. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016;64(Suppl 1):S262-S263.

Caloric restriction during aerobic training enhances cardiorespiratory fitness in obese, older adults: a randomized controlled trial: 1529 Board #182 June 2, 9: 00 AM - 10: 30 AM [abstract]. Nicklas BJ, Crotts C, Chmelo EA, Yow D, Gordon M, Lyles MF, Beavers KM, Houston DK, Hugenschmidt C, Leng I, Brinkley TE.. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48(5 Suppl 1):416-417.

APOE genotypes associate with cognitive performance but not cerebral structure: Diabetes Heart Study MIND. Palmer Allred ND, Raffield LM, Hardy JC, Hsu FC, Divers J, Xu J, Smith SC, Hugenschmidt CE, Wagner BC, Whitlow CT, Sink KM, Maldjian JA, Williamson JD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI.. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(12):2225-2231.

Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and risk for dementia: recent insights into brain insulin resistance and hypometabolism. Hugenschmidt CE.. Curr Behav Neurosci Rep. 2016;3():293-300.

Cerebral structural changes in diabetic kidney disease: African American-Diabetes Heart Study MIND. Sink KM, Divers J, Whitlow CT, Palmer ND, Smith SC, Xu J, Hugenschmidt CE, Wagner BC, Williamson JD, Bowden DW, Maldjian JA, Freedman BI.. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(2):206-212.

Heritability and genetic association analysis of neuroimaging measures in the Diabetes Heart Study. Raffield LM, Cox AJ, Hugenschmidt CE, Freedman BI, Langefeld CD, Williamson JD, Hsu F, Maldjian JA, Bowden DW.. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36(3):1602.e7-15.

Structural and functional assessment of the brain in European Americans with mild-to-moderate kidney disease: Diabetes Heart Study-MIND. Murea M, Hsu FC, Cox AJ, Hugenschmidt CE, Xu J, Adams JN, Raffield LM, Whitlow CT, Maldjian JA, Bowden DW, Freedman BI.. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015;30(8):1322-1329.

No pain, functional gain: the importance of pain management in older adults with cognitive impairment. Hugenschmidt CE, Sink KM.. Pain. 2015;156(8):1377-1378.

Postmenopausal hormone therapy, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and brain volumes. Espeland MA, Brinton RD, Manson JE, Yaffe K, Hugenschmidt C, Vaughan L, Craft S, Edwards BJ, Casanova R, Masaki K, Resnick SM.. Neurology. 2015;85(13):1131-1138.

Relationships between cognitive performance, neuroimaging and vascular disease: the DHS-MIND study. Hsu FC, Raffield LM, Hugenschmidt CE, Cox A, Xu J, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Maldjian JA, Williamson JD, Bowden DW.. Neuroepidemiology. 2015;45(1):1-11.

Effects of type 2 diabetes on brain structure and cognitive function: African American-Diabetes Heart Study MIND. Whitlow CT, Sink KM, Divers J, Smith SC, Xu J, Palmer ND, Hugenschmidt CE, Williamson JD, Bowden DW, Freedman BI, Maldjian JA.. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015;36(9):1648-1653.

Impact of type 2 diabetes and postmenopausal hormone therapy on incidence of cognitive impairment in older women. Espeland MA, Brinton RD, Hugenschmidt C, Manson JE, Craft S, Yaffe K, Weitlauf J, Vaughan L, Johnson KC, Padula CB, Jackson RD, Resnick SM.. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(12):2316-2324.

Solving the mystery of the diabetes-dementia connection: new clues--but far from 'case closed' [editorial]. Hugenschmidt C, Williamson JD.. J Diabetes Complications. 2014;28(1):8-9.

Graph theory analysis of functional brain networks and mobility disability in older adults. Hugenschmidt CE, Burdette JH, Morgan AR, Williamson JD, Kritchevsky SB, Laurienti PJ.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(11):1399-1406.

Heritability and genetic association analysis of cognition in the Diabetes Heart Study. Cox AJ, Hugenschmidt CE, Raffield LM, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Williamson JD, Hsu FC, Bowden DW.. Neurobiol Aging. 2014;35(8):1958e3-e12.

The cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of diabetic retinopathy with cognitive function and brain MRI findings: the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Hugenschmidt CE, Lovato JF, Ambrosius WT, Bryan RN, Gerstein HC, Horowitz KR, Launer LJ, Lazar RM, Murray AM, Chew EY, Danis RP, Williamson JD, Miller ME, Ding J.. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(12):3244-3252.

Kidney disease and cognitive function: African American-Diabetes Heart Study MIND. Palmer ND, Sink KM, Smith SC, Xu J, Bowden DW, Hugenschmidt CE, Whitlow CT, Williamson JD, Maldjian JA, Divers J, Freedman BI.. Am J Nephrol. 2014;40(3):200-207.

Usefulness of biventricular volume as a predictor of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (from the Diabetes Heart Study). Cox AJ, Hugenschmidt CE, Wang PT, Hsu FC, Kenchaiah S, Daniel K, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Herrington DM, Carr JJ, Stacey B, Bowden DW.. Am J Cardiol. 2013;111(8):1152-1158.

The influence of subclinical cardiovascular disease and related risk factors on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the DHS-Mind study. Hugenschmidt CE, Hsu FC, Hayasaka S, Carr JJ, Freedman BI, Nyenhuis DL, Williamson JD, Bowden DW.. J Diabetes Complications. 2013;27(5):422-428.

Cerebral white matter hyperintensity in African Americans and European Americans with type 2 diabetes. Divers J, Hugenschmidt C, Sink KM, Williamson JD, Ge Y, Smith SC, Bowden DW, Whitlow CT, Lyders E, Maldjian JA, Freedman BI.. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;22(7):e46-52.

An interdisciplinary counseling center for individuals, couples and families afftected by MCI and dementia [abstract]. Alli R, Hall D, Clarke P, Hugenschmidt C, Rogers S, Sink K, Villalba J, Williams J, Wilson V, Shaw E.. Alzheimers Dement. 2013;9(4 Suppl):P646.

A brain fitness program for people with dementia concurrent with a support group for their caregivers is feasible [abstract]. Neth B, Colmer HG IV, Hugenschmidt C, Fitzsimmons S, Shaw E, Alli R, Sun D, Henningsen D, Mugweru J, Sink K.. Alzheimers Dement. 2013;9(4 Suppl):P647-P648.

A link between type 2 diabetes and brain function [commentary]. Hugenschmidt CE.. JAAPA. 2013;26(12):10-11.

Differences in arachidonic acid levels and fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene variants in African Americans and European Americans with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Sergeant S, Hugenschmidt CE, Rudock ME, Ziegler JT, Ivester P, Ainsworth HC, Vaidya D, Case LD, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Mathias RA, Chilton FH.. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(4):547-555.

Preliminary associations between cognition and glucose regulation in obese elderly at risk for type 2 diabetes [abstract]. Hugenschmidt CE, Blocker JN, Williamson JD, Nicklas BJ.. Diabetes. 2012;61(Suppl 1):A185.

Retinopathy in relation to cerebral ischemic lesion and cognitive decline in older patients with type 2 diabetes [abstract]. Ding J, Lovato J, Hugenschmidt CE, Ambrosius W, Horowitz K, Bryan RN, Greven C, Gerstein HC, Lazer R, Murray A, Thomas A, Launer L, Williamson J.. Diabetes. 2012;61(Suppl 1A):LB2.

The impact of FADS genetic variants on omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in African Americans. Mathias RA, Sergeant S, Hugenschmidt CE, Ziegler JT, Ivester P, Case D, Freedman BI, Rudock ME, Langefeld CD, Bowden DW, Chilton FH, et al.. BMC Genet. 2011;12():article 50.

A network of genes, genetic disorders, and brain areas. Hayasaka S, Hugenschmidt CE, Laurienti PJ.. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(6):e20907.

Ethics in 15 min per week. Peiffer AM, Hugenschmidt CE, Laurienti PJ.. Sci Eng Ethics. 2011;17(2):289-297.

Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks. Moussa MN, Vechlekar CD, Burdette JH, Steen MR, Hugenschmidt CE, Laurienti PJ.. Front Hum Neurosci. 2011;5():article 83.

Cognitive performance is related to vascular disease and diabetes in a family study of type 2 diabetes [abstract]. Hugenschmidt C, Hayasaka S, Langefeld C, Freedman B, Carr JJ, Williamson J, Bowden DW.. Diabetes. 2011;60(Suppl 1):A225-A226.

Multisensory integration and aging. Mozolic JL, Hugenschmidt CE, Peiffer AM, Laurienti PJ. In: Murray MM, Wallace MT, eds. The neural basis of multisensory processes. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press;2011: 381-395.

Applying capacity analyses to psychophysical evaluation of multisensory interactions. Hugenschmidt CE, Hayasaka S, Peiffer AM, Laurienti PJ.. Inf Fusion. 2010;11(1 Special Issue):12-20.

Review of the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) family of studies: a comprehensively examined sample for genetic and epidemiological studies of type 2 diabetes and its complications. Bowden DW, Cox AJ, Freedman BI, Hugenschimdt CE [sic] [Hugenschmidt CE], Wagenknecht LE, Herrington D, Agarwal S, Register TC, Maldjian JA, Ng MC-Y, Hsu F-C, Langefeld CD, Williamson JD, Carr JJ.. Rev Diabet Stud. 2010;7(3):188-201.

Aging and the interaction of sensory cortical function and structure. Peiffer AM, Hugenschmidt CE, Maldjian JA, Casavona R, Srikanth R, Hayasaka S, Burdette JH, Kraft RA, Laurienti PJ.. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(1):228-240.

Suppression of multisensory integration by modality-specific attention in aging. Hugenschmidt CE, Mozolic JL, Laurienti PJ.. Neuroreport. 2009;20(4):349-353.

Age-related increase in cross-sensory noise in resting and steady-state cerebral perfusion. Hugenschmidt CE, Mozolic JL, Tan H, Kraft RA, Laurienti PJ.. Brain Topogr. 2009;21(3-4):241-251.

Preservation of crossmodal selective attention in healthy aging. Hugenschmidt CE, Peiffer AM, McCoy TP, Hayasaka S, Laurienti PJ.. Exp Brain Res. 2009;198(2-3):273-285.

Do structural MRI analyses show evidence for cognitive reserve in the healthy aging brain? [abstract]. Peiffer AM, Hugenschmidt CE, Mozolic J, Laurienti PJ.. Gerontologist. 2009;49(Suppl 2):306.

Modality-specific selective attention attenuates multisensory integration. Mozolic JL, Hugenschmidt CE, Peiffer AM, Laurienti PJ.. Exp Brain Res. 2008;184(1):39-52.

Relating imaging indices of white matter integrity and volume in healthy older adults. Hugenschmidt CE, Peiffer AM, Kraft RA, Casanova R, Deibler AR, Burdette JH, Maldjian JA, Laurienti PJ.. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18(2):433-442.

Cross-modal deactivations during modality-specific selective attention. Mozolic JL, Joyner D, Hugenschmidt CE, Peiffer AM, Kraft RA, Maldjian JA, Laurienti PJ.. BMC Neurol. 2008;8():article 35.

Fostering a culture of responsible lab conduct [letter]. Peiffer AM, Laurienti PJ, Hugenschmidt CE.. Science. 2008;322(5905):1186.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Assistant Professor, Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine

Quick Reference

Request an Appointment
New Patients


Existing patients may contact the clinic directly.
Find a Doctor Ways to Give
Wake Forest Baptist Ranked among Nation’s ‘Best Hospitals’  25 Years in a Row by U.S. News & World ReportComprehensive Cancer Centers National Designation is Renewed2017-2018 Best DoctorsNursing Magnet StatusJoint Commission Report

Disclaimer: The information on this website is for general informational purposes only and SHOULD NOT be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice, evaluation or care from your physician or other qualified health care provider.

© Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157. All Rights Reserved.