Skip Navigation


Carol A. Shively, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Carol A. Shively, Ph.D.


Substance Addiction& Abuse Ctr

Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-1524 | Department: 336-716-1524


Media Medical Expert »

Related Links

Education & Training

  • B.A., Hiram College, 1979
  • M.A., University of California-Davis, 1981
  • Ph.D., University of California-Davis, 1983
  • Fellowship, WFU School of Medicine, 1986


  • Intl Society Of Psychoneuroend
  • North Am Menopause Soc
  • Soc Of Behavioral Medicine
  • Society for Neuroscience
  • Am Psychological Assn
  • Aha - Council On Arteriosclero
  • Am Soc Of Primatologists
  • Int'L Primatological Soc.
Carol A. Shively, Ph.D.

Carol A. Shively, Ph.D.

Director, Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Professor, Pathology-Comparative Medicine
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Substance Addiction& Abuse Ctr

Research Interests

Depression; Macaca fascicularis; Sertraline; Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors; Behavior, Animal
More »

Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-1524 | Department: 336-716-1524


Media Medical Expert »

Related Links

Recent Publications

The Apathy in Dementia Methylphenidate Trial 2 (ADMET 2): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Scherer RW, Drye L, Mintzer J, Lanctot K, Rosenberg P, Herrmann N, Padala P, Brawman-Mintzer O, Burke W, Craft S, Lerner AJ, Levey A, Porsteinsson A, van Dyck CH, Baker LD, Williamson JD, Bell RA, Espeland M, Miller ME, Mott RT, Rapp S, Hayden K,.. Trials. 2018;19(1):46.

Gut microbiome composition in non-human primates consuming a Western or Mediterranean diet. Nagpal R, Shively CA, Appt SA, Register TC, Michalson KT, Vitolins MZ, Yadav H.. Front Nutr. 2018;5():28.

The impact of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on primate cardiovascular disease, behavior, and neuroanatomy. Shively CA, Silverstein-Metzler M, Justice J, Willard SL.. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017;74(Pt B):433-443.

Human striatal dopaminergic and regional serotonergic synaptic degeneration with Lewy body disease and inheritance of APOE epsilon4. Postupna N, Latimer CS, Larson EB, Sherfield E, Paladin J, Shively CA, Jorgensen MJ, Andrews RN, Kaplan JR, Crane PK, Montine KS, Craft S, Keene CD, Montine TJ.. Am J Pathol. 2017;187(4):884-895.

Reduced marker of vascularization in the anterior hippocampus in a female monkey model of depression. Kalidindi A, Kelly SD, Singleton KS, Guzman D, Merrill L, Willard SL, Shively CA, Neigh GN.. Physiol Behav. 2017;172():12-15.

Long-term sertraline treatment and depression effects on carotid artery atherosclerosis in premenopausal female primates. Silverstein-Metzler MG, Justice JN, Appt SE, Groban L, Kitzman DW, Carr JJ, Register TC, Shively CA.. Menopause. 2017;24(10):1175-1184.

Depression in captive nonhuman primates: theoretical underpinnings, methods, and application to behavioral management. Shively CA. In: Schapiro SJ, ed. Handbook of primate behavioral management. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group;2017: 115-126.

Relationships of depressive behavior and sertraline treatment with walking speed and activity in older female nonhuman primates. Justice JN, Silverstein-Metzler MG, Uberseder B, Appt SE, Clarkson TB [deceased], Register TC, Kritchevsky SB, Shively CA.. Geroscience. 2017;39(5-6):585-600.

Blood-based bioenergetic profiling reflects differences in brain bioenergetics and metabolism. Tyrrell DJ, Bharadwaj MS, Jorgensen MJ, Register TC, Shively C, Andrews RN, Neth B, Dirk Keene C, Mintz A, Craft S, Molina AJA.. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017():7317251.

Behavioral depression is associated with increased vagally mediated heart rate variability in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Jarczok MN, Koenig J, Shively CA, Thayer JF.. Int J Psychophysiol. 2017;():.

Comparative approaches to understanding the relation between aging and physical function. Justice JN, Cesari M, Seals DR, Shively CA, Carter CS.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71(10):1243-1253.

Multi-atlas library for eliminating normalization failures in non-human primates. Maldjian JA, Shively CA, Nader MA, Friedman DP, Whitlow CT.. Neuroinformatics. 2016;14(2):183-190.

Sertraline inhibits increases in body fat and carbohydrate dysregulation in adult female cynomolgus monkeys. Silverstein-Metzler MG, Shively CA, Clarkson TB [deceased], Appt SE, Carr JJ, Kritchevsky SB, Jones SR, Register TC.. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;68():29-38.

Social status and the non-human primate brain. Willard SL, Shively CA. In: Shively CA, Wilson ME, eds. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates: the biology of the gradient. Switzerland: Springer;2016: 117-139.

Dietary modification of physiological responses to chronic psychosocial stress: implications for the obesity epidemic. Shively CA, Fimmel A, Jones S, Nader M. In: Shively CA, Wilson ME, eds. Social inequalities in health in nonhuman primates: the biology of the gradient. Switzerland: Springer;2016: 159-178.

. Shively CA, Wilson ME, eds.. In: Social inequalities in health in non human primates: the biology of the gradient. Switzerland: Springer;2016: .

Microbial translocation and skeletal muscle in young and old vervet monkeys. Kavanagh K, Brown RN, Davis AT, Uberseder B, Floyd E, Pfisterer B, Shively CA.. Age (Dordr). 2016;38(3):58.

The aging vervet as a model of Alzheimer's disease [abstract]. Latimer C, Kaplan J, Shively C, Cline J, Andrews R, Jorgensen M, Craft S, Montine T, Keene C.. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016;75(6):604.

Intestinal barrier function and physical function in healthy old sarcopenic monkeys [abstract]. Kavanagh K, Davis AT, Jones R, Gharaibeh R, Fodor A, Shively C.. Gerontologist. 2016;56(Suppl 3):350.

Macaques exhibit a naturally-occurring depression similar to humans. Xu F, Wu Q, Xie L, Gong W, Zhang J, Zheng P, Zhou Q, Ji Y, Wang T, Li X, Fang L, Li Q, Yang D, Li J, Melgiri ND, Shively C, Xie P.. Sci Rep. 2015;5():9220.

Effects of long-term sertraline treatment and depression on coronary artery atherosclerosis in premenopausal female primates. Shively CA, Register TC, Appt SE, Clarkson TB.. Psychosom Med. 2015;77(3):267-278.

Age-related structural changes in upper extremity muscle tissue in a nonhuman primate model. Santago AC II, Plate JF, Shively CA, Register TC, Smith TL, Saul KR.. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2015;24(10):1660-1668.

Osteoarthritic changes in vervet monkey knees correlate with meniscus degradation and increased matrix metalloproteinase and cytokine secretion. Stone AV, Vanderman KS, Willey JS, Long DL, Register TC, Shively CA, Stehle JR Jr, Loeser RF, Ferguson CM.. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015;23(10):1780-1789.

Long term sertraline effects on neural structures in depressed and nondepressed adult female nonhuman primates. Willard SL, Uberseder B, Clark A, Daunais JB, Johnston WD, Neely D, Massey A, Williamson JD, Kraft RA, Bourland JD, Jones SR, Shively CA.. Neuropharmacology. 2015;99():369-378.

Life course socioeconomic status and DNA methylation in genes related to stress reactivity and inflammation: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Needham BL, Smith JA, Zhao W, Wang X, Mukherjee B, Kardia SL, Shively CA, Seeman TE, Liu Y, Diez Roux AV.. Epigenetics. 2015;10(10):958-969.

Western diet affects autonomic nervous system activity in subordinate but not dominant monkeys [abstract]. Thayer J, Koenig J, Shively C.. FASEB J. 2015;29(Suppl 1):136.2.

Effect of depression and sertraline treatment on cardiac function in female nonhuman primates. Groban L, Kitzman DW, Register TC, Shively CA.. Psychosom Med. 2014;76(2):137-146.

Sertraline effects on cerebrospinal fluid monoamines and species-typical socioemotional behavior of female cynomolgus monkeys. Shively CA, Register TC, Higley JD, Willard SL.. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014;231(7):1409-1416.

Altered expression of glial and synaptic markers in the anterior hippocampus of behaviorally depressed female monkeys. Willard SL, Hemby SE, Register TC, McIntosh S, Shively CA.. Neurosci Lett. 2014;563():1-5.

Adipose tissue density, a novel biomarker predicting mortality risk in older adults. Murphy RA, Register TC, Shively CA, Carr JJ, Ge Y, Heilbrun ME, Cummings SR, Koster A, Nevitt MC, Satterfield S, Tylvasky FA, Strotmeyer ES, Newman AB, Simonsick EM, Scherzinger A, Goodpaster BH, Launer LJ, Eiriksdottir G,.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(1):109-117.

Effect of soy isoflavones on thyroid hormones in intact and ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Silverstein MG, Kaplan JR, Appt SE, Register TC, Shively CA.. Menopause. 2014;21(10):1136-1142.

Molecular mechanisms of synaptic dysfunction in a female monkey model of depression [abstract]. Willard SL, Borgmann-Winter KE, Wang HY, MacDonald ML, Shively CA, Hahn CG.. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;75(9 Suppl):321S.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and bleeding in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Silverstein MG, El-Amin CK, Shively CA.. Comp Med. 2014;64(3):221-223.

Why primate models matter. Phillips KA, Bales KL, Capitanio JP, Conley A, Czoty PW, 't Hart BA, Hopkins WD, Hu SL, Miller LA, Nader MA, Nathanielsz PW, Rogers J, Shively CA, Voytko ML.. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(9):801-827.

Effect of living conditions on biochemical and hematological parameters of the cynomolgus monkey. Xie L, Zhou Q, Liu S, Xu F, Shively CA, Wu Q, Gong W, Ji Y, Fang L, Li L, Melgiri ND, Xie P.. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(11):1011-1024.

Dietary modification of physiological stress responses [abstract]. Shively CA, Register TC, Vitolins MZ, Wilson ME, Appt SE.. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(Suppl 1):71.

Interdisciplinary approaches to the study of social stress effects on health [abstract]. Shively CA, Wilson ME, Sanchez MM, Johnson ZP, Neigh GN, Silverstein MG, Willard SL, Michopoulos VJ.. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(Suppl 1):68.

Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and social stress on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism in female cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis) [abstract]. Silverstein MG, Register TC, Appt SE, Shively CA.. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(Suppl 1):70.

Modulation of stress signaling pathways by chronic social stress and antidepressant treatment in olfactory neuroepithelial cells from socially-housed female macaques (macaca fascicularis) [abstract]. Willard SL, Borgmann-Winter KE, Shively CA, Hahn CG.. Am J Primatol. 2014;76(Suppl 1):70.

Force-generation capacity of single vastus lateralis muscle fibers and physical function decline with age in African green vervet monkeys.. Choi SJ, Shively CA, Register TC, Feng X, Stehle J, High K, Ip E, Kritchevsky SB, Nicklas B, Delbono O.. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68(3):258-267.

Monkey see, monkey do: contagious itch in nonhuman primates. Feneran AN, O'Donnell R, Press A, Yosipovitch G, Cline M, Dugan G, Papoiu AD, Nattkemper LA, Chan YH, Shively CA.. Acta Derm Venereol. 2013;93(1):27-29.

Differential effects of estradiol on carotid artery inflammation when administered early versus late after surgical menopause. Sophonsritsuk A, Appt SE, Clarkson TB, Shively CA, Espeland MA, Register TC.. Menopause. 2013;20(5):540-547.

Long term sertraline treatment decreases volumes of hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex in an adult female primate model of depression [abstract]. Willard S, Johnston WD, Clark A, Uberseder B, Neely D, Massey A, Daunais J, Williamson J, Register TC, Bourland JD, Shively C.. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73(9 Suppl):235S.

Altered composition of the postsynaptic density in behaviorally depressed adult female cynomolgus macaques [abstract]. Willard SL, Borgmann-Winter KE, MacDonald ML, Shively CA, Hahn CG.. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73(9 Suppl):154S.

Overexpression of the gastrin-releasing Peptide in cutaneous nerve fibers and its receptor in the spinal cord in primates with chronic itch [letter]. Nattkemper LA, Zhao ZQ, Nichols AJ, Papoiu AD, Shively CA, Chen ZF, Yosipovitch G.. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133(10):2489-2492.

Development of amyloid burden in African Green monkeys. Kalinin S, Willard SL, Shively CA, Kaplan JR, Register TC, Jorgensen MJ, Polak PE, Rubinstein I, Feinstein DL.. Neurobiol Aging. 2013;34(10):2361-2369.

Depression-like behavioral phenotypes by social and social plus visual isolation in the adult female Macaca fascicularis. Li X, Xu F, Xie L, Ji Y, Cheng K, Zhou Q, Wang T, Shively C, Wu Q, Gong W, Fang L, Zhan Q, Melgiri ND, Xie P.. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e73293.

Age-related degenerative functional, radiographic, and histological changes of the shoulder in nonhuman primates. Plate JF, Bates CM, Mannava S, Smith TL, Jorgensen MJ, Register TC, Stehle JR, High KP, Shively CA, Kaplan JR, Saul KR, Tuohy CJ.. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013;22(8):1019-1029.

Cell number and neuropil alterations in subregions of the anterior hippocampus in a female monkey model of depression. Willard SL, Riddle DR, Forbes ME, Shively CA.. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;74(12):890-897.

Aging and physical function in nonhuman primates: a translational model [abstract]. Shively CA, Kritchevsky SB, Register TC.. Gerontologist. 2013;53(Suppl 1):249.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Carol A. Shively, Ph.D.

Carol A. Shively, Ph.D.

Director, Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Professor, Pathology-Comparative Medicine
Office of Women in Medicine and Science
Substance Addiction& Abuse Ctr

Quick Reference

Request an Appointment
New Patients


Existing patients may contact the clinic directly.
Find a Doctor Ways to Give
Wake Forest Baptist Ranked among Nation’s ‘Best Hospitals’  25 Years in a Row by U.S. News & World ReportComprehensive Cancer Centers National Designation is Renewed2017-2018 Best DoctorsNursing Magnet StatusJoint Commission Report

Disclaimer: The information on this website is for general informational purposes only and SHOULD NOT be relied upon as a substitute for sound professional medical advice, evaluation or care from your physician or other qualified health care provider.

© Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157. All Rights Reserved.