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Thomas L. Smith, Ph.D.Wake Forest School of Medicine

Thomas L. Smith, Ph.D.


Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-2093 | Department: 336-716-8200

Education & Training

  • B.S., Texas A&M University, 1971
  • M.S., Texas A&M University, 1975
  • Ph.D., Wake Forest University, 1979
  • Fellowship, University of Mississippi Scho, 1980


  • Am Academy Of Orthopaedic Surg
  • Microcirculatory Society
  • Orthopaedic Research Society
  • Sigma Xi - Research Society
  • Society for Neuroscience
  • Am Heart Association
  • Am Physiological Society
  • Am Soc Of Reconstructive Micro
Thomas L. Smith, Ph.D.

Thomas L. Smith, Ph.D.

Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery
Physiology & Pharmacology
Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Biomedical Engineering

Research Interests

Muscle, Skeletal; Electric Stimulation Therapy; Neuromuscular Agents; Tendons; Keratins
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Contact Information

Academic: 336-716-2093 | Department: 336-716-8200

Recent Publications

A practical guide for complex regional pain syndrome in the acute stage and late stage. Koman LA, Smith BP, Smith TL. In: Wolfe SW, Hotchkiss, RN, Pederson WC, Kozin SH, Cohen MS, eds. Green's operative hand surgery. vol 2. 7th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Elsevier;2017: 1797-1827.

The regenerative effects of electromagnetic field on spinal cord injury. Ross CL, Syed I, Smith TL, Harrison BS.. Electromagn Biol Med. 2017;36(1):74-87.

The development of a xenograft-derived scaffold for tendon and ligament reconstruction using a decellularization and oxidation protocol. Seyler TM, Bracey DN, Plate JF, Lively MO, Mannava S, Smith TL, Saul JM, Poehling GG, Van Dyke ME, Whitlock PW.. Arthroscopy. 2017;33(2):374-386.

Controlled delivery system. de Guzman R, Saul JM, Smith TL, Van Dyke ME, inventors; Wake Forest University Health Sciences, assignee.. Australia patent AU 2011222540. 2017 Jan 12. 2017;():.

Small-scale pressure sensors. Carroll DL, Coldren F, Levi-Polyachenko NH, Webb LX, Werner BC, Smith TL, Wagner WD, inventors; Wake Forest University Health Sciences, assignee.. United States patent US 9,671,301. 2017 Jun 6. 2017;():.

Age-dependent Schwann cell phenotype regulation following peripheral nerve injury. Chen WA, Luo TD, Barnwell JC, Smith TL, Li Z.. J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol. 2017;22(4):464-471.

Effects of amniotic fluid derived stem cells (AFS) on regeneration of large-gap peripheral nerve injuries in a rat model [abstract]. Ma X, Marquez-Lara A, Elsner E, Smith TL, Li Z.. Tissue Eng Part A. 2017;23(Suppl 1):S36-S37.

Delivery of stem cell treatment in a percutaneous needle puncture model of degenerative disc disease in rabbits [abstract]. Luo TD, Zabarsky ZK, Marquez-Lara A, O'Gara TJ, Willey JS, Jinnah AH, Ma X, Smith TL.. Tissue Eng Part A. 2017;23(Suppl 1):S70.

The effect of keratin on spinal cord injury recovery [abstract]. Zabarsky Z, Marquez-Lara A, Luo T, Jinnah A, Van Dyke M, Smith TL.. Tissue Eng Part A. 2017;23(Suppl 1):S105.

Decellularized xenograft bone scaffold is superior to demineralized bone matrix in healing of critical bone defects in rat femurs [abstract]. Jinnah AH, Bracey DN, Luo TD, Willey JS, Collins BE, Smith TL.. Tissue Eng Part A. 2017;23(Suppl 1):S13.

Effects of post-delivery placenta disc (HPH) on porcine hyaline cartilage matrix breakdown [abstract]. Ma X, Tomblyn S, Willey J, Washburn S, Smith TL, Yammani R.. Tissue Eng Part A. 2017;23(Suppl 1):S70-S71.

Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates skeletal muscle fibrosis and stiffening in a mouse model of extremity sarcoma radiation therapy. Willey JS, Bracey DN, Gallagher PE, Tallant EA, Wiggins WF, Callahan MF, Smith TL, Emory CL.. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016;98(1):48-55.

Effects of age and insulin-like growth factor-1 on rat neurotrophin receptor expression after nerve injury. Luo TD, Alton TB, Apel PJ, Cai J, Barnwell JC, Sonntag WE, Smith TL, Li Z.. Muscle Nerve. 2016;54(4):769-775.

Prostate-specific membrane antigen-targeted liposomes specifically deliver the Zn(2+) chelator TPEN inducing oxidative stress in prostate cancer cells. Stuart CH, Singh R, Smith TL, D'Agostino R Jr, Caudell D, Balaji KC, Gmeiner WH.. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2016;11(10):1207-1222.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bone-healing: a systematic review of research quality. Marquez-Lara A, Hutchinson ID, Nunez F Jr, Smith TL, Miller AN.. JBJS Rev. 2016;4(3):e4.

Strain gauge and applications thereof. Carroll DL, O'Gara TJ, Smith TL, inventors; Wake Forest University Health Sciences, assignee.. United States patent US 9,464,948. 2016 Oct 11. 2016;():.

Angiotensin-(1-7) prevents angiotensin II-induced fibrosis in cremaster microvessels. Carver KA, Smith TL, Gallagher PE, Tallant EA.. Microcirculation. 2015;22(1):19-27.

Age-related structural changes in upper extremity muscle tissue in a nonhuman primate model. Santago AC II, Plate JF, Shively CA, Register TC, Smith TL, Saul KR.. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2015;24(10):1660-1668.

Age-related changes affect rat rotator cuff muscle function. Plate JF, Pace LA, Seyler TM, Moreno RJ, Smith TL, Tuohy CJ, Mannava S.. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014;23(1):91-98.

Reduction of ectopic bone growth in critically-sized rat mandible defects by delivery of rhBMP-2 from kerateine biomaterials. Kowalczewski CJ, Tombyln S, Wasnick DC, Hughes MR, Ellenburg MD, Callahan MF, Smith TL, Van Dyke ME, Burnett LR, Saul JM.. Biomaterials. 2014;35(10):3220-3228.

A human hair keratin hydrogel scaffold enhances median nerve regeneration in nonhuman primates: an electrophysiological and histological study. Pace LA, Plate JF, Mannava S, Barnwell JC, Koman LA, Li Z, Smith TL, Van Dyke M.. Tissue Eng Part A. 2014;20(3-4):507-517.

Advanced age diminishes tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model of rotator cuff repair. Plate JF, Brown PJ, Walters J, Clark JA, Smith TL, Freehill MT, Tuohy CJ, Stitzel JD, Mannava S.. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(4):859-868.

Hemodynamic responses to angiotensin-(1-7) in women in their third trimester of pregnancy. Yamaleyeva LM, Merrill DC, Ebert TJ, Smith TL, Mertz HL, Brosnihan KB.. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2014;33(4):375-388.

The endogenous peptide angiotensin-(1-7) prevents radiation-induced muscle fibrosis: an in vivo murine model [abstract]. Bracey DN, Willey JS, Tallant EA, Gallagher PE, Wiggins WF, Callahan MF, Smith TL, Emory CL.. In: Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2014 March 15-18; New Orleans (LA). 2014;():.

Total-body irradiation produces late degenerative joint damage in rats. Hutchinson ID, Olson J, Lindburg CA, Payne V, Collins B, Smith TL, Munley MT, Wheeler KT, Willey JS.. Int J Radiat Biol. 2014;90(9):821-830.

Type-1 pericytes accumulate after tissue injury and produce collagen in an organ-dependent manner. Birbrair A, Zhang T, Files DC, Mannava S, Smith T, Wang ZM, Messi ML, Mintz A, Delbono O.. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;5(6):122.

F10 inhibits growth of PC3 xenografts and enhances the effects of radiation therapy. Gmeiner WH, Willingham MC, Bourland JD, Hatcher HC, Smith TL, D'Agostino RB Jr, Blackstock W.. J Clin Oncol Res. 2014;2(4):1028.

Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates metastatic prostate cancer and reduces osteoclastogenesis. Krishnan B, Smith TL, Dubey P, Zapadka ME, Torti FM, Willingham MC, Tallant EA, Gallagher PE.. Prostate. 2013;73(1):71-82.

Bone regeneration with BMP-2 delivered from keratose scaffolds. de Guzman RC, Saul JM, Ellenburg MD, Merrill MR, Coan HB, Smith TL, Van Dyke ME.. Biomaterials. 2013;34(6):1644-1656.

In vitro osteogenic differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells on a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-bladder submucosa matrix (BSM) composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Kim J, Jeong SY, Ju YM, Yoo JJ, Smith TL, Khang G, Lee SJ, Atala A.. Biomed Mater. 2013;8(1):014107.

Microvascular effects of subatmospheric pressure in striated muscle. Langfitt M, Webb LX, Onwuchuruba C, Callahan M, Smith TL.. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2013;29(2):117-124.

Normal aging alters in vivo passive biomechanical response of the rat gastrocnemius-Achilles muscle-tendon unit. Plate JF, Wiggins WF, Haubruck P, Scott AT, Smith TL, Saul KR, Mannava S.. J Biomech. 2013;46(3):450-455.

Rotator cuff injuries in professional and recreational athletes. Plate JF, Haubruck P, Walters J, Mannava S, Smith BP, Smith TL, Tuohy CJ.. J Surg Orthop Adv. 2013;22(2):134-142.

The effect of human hair keratin hydrogel on early cellular response to sciatic nerve injury in a rat model. Pace LA, Plate JF, Smith TL, Van Dyke ME.. Biomaterials. 2013;34(24):5907-5914.

The science of rotator cuff tears: translating animal models to clinical recommendations using simulation analysis. Mannava S, Plate JF, Tuohy CJ, Seyler TM, Whitlock PW, Curl WW, Smith TL, Saul KR.. Knee Surg Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21(7):1610-1619.

Echium oil reduces plasma triglycerides by increasing intravascular lipolysis in apoB100-only low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice. Forrest LM, Lough CM, Chung S, Boudyguina EY, Gebre AK, Smith TL, Colvin PL, Parks JS.. Nutrients. 2013;5(7):2629-2645.

Effect of cyclic strain on tensile properties of a naturally derived, decellularized tendon scaffold seeded with allogeneic tenocytes and associated messenger RNA expression. Whitlock PW, Seyler TM, Northam CN, Smith TL, Poehling GG, Koman LA, Van Dyke ME.. J Surg Orthop Adv. 2013;22(3):224-232.

Hemodynamic recovery after hypovolemic shock with lactated Ringer's and keratin resuscitation fluid (KRF), a novel colloid. Nunez FA, Callahan MF, Trach S, Burnett LR, Kislukhin V, Smith TL, Van Dyke M.. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2013;41(5):293-303.

Age-related degenerative functional, radiographic, and histological changes of the shoulder in nonhuman primates. Plate JF, Bates CM, Mannava S, Smith TL, Jorgensen MJ, Register TC, Stehle JR, High KP, Shively CA, Kaplan JR, Saul KR, Tuohy CJ.. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013;22(8):1019-1029.

The endogenous peptide angiotensin-(1-7) prevents radiation-induced muscle fibrosis: an in vivo murine model [abstract]. Bracey D, Willey JS, Tallant EA, Gallagher PD [sic] [Gallagher PE], Smith TL, Callahan MF, Emory CL.. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;87(2 Suppl):S167.

Angiotensin-(1-7) prevents radiation-induced muscle fibosis: an in vivo murine model [abstract]. Bracey DN, Willey JS, Tallant EA, Gallagher PE, Smith TL, Callahan MF, Emory CL.. In: Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Southern Orthopedic Association; 2013 July 30-August 2; Palm Beach (FL). 2013;():.

Keratin biomaterials for treatment of ischemia. Burnett L, Callahan M, Smith TL, Van Dyke ME, inventors; Wake Forest University Health Sciences, assignee.. United States patent US 8545893. 2013 Oct 1. 2013;():.

The effect of botulinum neurotoxin-A on blood flow in rats: a potential mechanism for treatment of Raynaud phenomenon. Stone AV, Koman LA, Callahan MF, Eckman DM, Smith BP, Plate JF, Smith TL.. J Hand Surg [Am]. 2012;37(4):795-802.

Macrophage 12/15 lipoxygenase expression increases plasma and hepatic lipid levels and exacerbates atherosclerosis. Rong S, Cao Q, Liu M, Seo J, Jia L, Boudyguina E, Gebre AK, Colvin PL, Smith TL, Murphy RC, Mishra N, Parks JS.. J Lipid Res. 2012;53(4):686-695.

Regenerative medicine as applied to general surgery. Orlando G, Wood KJ, De Coppi P, Baptista PM, Binder KW, Bitar KN, Breuer C, Burnett L, Christ G, Farney A, Figliuzzi M, Holmes JH IV, Koch K, Macchiarini P, Mirmalek Sani S-H, Opara E, Remuzzi A, Rogers J, Saul JM, Seliktar D,.. Ann Surg. 2012;255(5):867-880.

Porohyperviscoelastic model simultaneously predicts parenchymal fluid pressure and reaction force in perfused liver. Moran EC, Raghunathan S, Evans DW, Vavalle NA, Sparks JL, Leroith T, Smith TL.. J Biomech Eng. 2012;134(9):091002.

Botulinum neurotoxin A injections influence stretching of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in an animal model. Haubruck P, Mannava S, Plate JF, Callahan MF, Wiggins WF, Schmidmaier G, Tuohy CJ, Saul KR, Smith TL.. Toxins. 2012;4(8):605-619.

A novel process for optimizing musculoskeletal allograft tissue to improve safety, ultrastructural properties, and cell infiltration. Whitlock PW, Seyler TM, Parks GD, Ornelles DA, Smith TL, Van Dyke ME, Poehling GG.. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(16):1458-1467.

Hemodynamic response after hypovolemic shock and resuscitation with low-volume 6% hetastarch (HS) and high-volume lactated Ringer's (LR) solution [abstract]. Nunez FA, Kislukin V, Smith TL, Callahan MF, Burnett L, VanDyke ME.. FASEB J. 2012;26(Meeting Abstracts Suppl):1132.8.

Vascular remodeling by angiotensin peptide hormones alters reactivity of the microcirculation [abstract]. Carver KA, Smith TL, Gallagher PE, Tallant EA.. Hypertension. 2012;60(3 Suppl):530.

All Publications

For a listing of recent publications, refer to PubMed, a service provided by the National Library of Medicine.

For a list of earlier publications, visit the Carpenter Library Publication Search.

Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery

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